Kent State, May 4, 1970

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  • Please scroll down for schedule of May 4, 2007 events.


    You know, you see these bums, you know, blowin' up the campuses. Listen, the boys that are on the college campuses today are the luckiest people in the world, going to the greatest universities, and here they are, burnin' up the books, I mean, stormin' around about this issue, I mean, you name it - get rid of the war, there'll be another one.

    -- Richard Nixon, New York Times, May 2, 1970

    We're Still Waiting for Answers
    Click HERE.

    Cost of the War in Iraq
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    Details here

    37 Years After
    4 Students Were
    Slain, We're Still
    Asking 'Why?'


    Kent State Massacre Tape: 'Right Here, Get Set! Point! Fire!'
    Survivors of the 1970 massacre at Kent State are calling on officials to reinvestigate what happened on May 4 1970 when the National Guard shot four students dead at an anti-war rally. On May 1, 2007, one of the survivors – Alan Canfora – released an audio tape from the day of the shootings. Canfora said by closely listening you can hear a National Guard officer issue the command "Right Here, Get Set! Point! Fire!" Following the command, the sounds of shots being fired can be heard. The FBI has never determined whether an order to shoot was given. Eight members of the National Guard were acquitted of federal civil rights charges four years after the shootings. Canfora said the reel-to-reel audio recording was made by a student on campus. [Click HERE for details and AUDIO]

    WWWMAY 4

    ONLINE EXTRA! The Downing Street "Memo"

    2005 Schedule
    Archives No. 1
    Archives No. 2

    See interviews from the film, "13 Seconds: The Day the War Came Home." An Emmy Award-winning documentary.
  • Guardsman and students remember the sequence of events that led to the shootings.
  • One of the shootings is described by a former Kent State student and the guardsman involved.

  • Does the Pentagon have your child's number? Click here to learn more.
    Click Here.

    FBI REPORT: 1146 Pages

    Oral History of May 4, 1970

    May 4 Collection KSU Libraries and Media Services Department of Special Collections and Archives

    America Kills Its Children

    What Really Happened at Kent State?

    Kent State Forever Linked With Vietnam War Era

    What The Nation Learned at Kent State In 1970

    TIME: At War With War

    MAYDAY: Kent State The Movie

    Vietnam War Links: College Protests

    of the manipulated Mary Ann Vecchio photo has been solved. Click HERE.

    retells the story of May 4 in his syndicated comic strip "Crankshaft." Click HERE.

    The May 4 Shootings at Kent State University: The Search for Historical Accuracy
    by Jerry M. Lewis and Thomas R. Hensley

    My Son Died at Kent State
    by Elaine Holstein

    This Is Not What It Sounds Like On TV
    by Carol Mirman

    The Shooting at Kent State
    by Tom Grace

    Kent State Seen Through Peggy Wade's Eyes
    by Christine Gillette

    The Real Heroes Were Soldiers Who Organized Against The War
    by Mike Alewitz

    The '60s May Be History, But Student Activism Lives On
    by Stephanie Brenowitz

    Remembering Kent State
    by Bill Walsh

    Photographer John Filo recalls Day Protest turned to Tragedy
    by Jean Patman

    Of Loss and Learning: Haunting Reminders of Kent State Deaths

    by Staff of the Akron Beacon Journal

    Alan Canfora speech text, Kent State, May 4, 2004
    by Alan Canfora

    Kent State Shootings Shocked Viet Vet
    by Larry L. Rose

    "Peace-Loving" Protesters: Kent State Revisited
    by Steve Farrell

    "Good American" Revisionism
    by David Kirby

    "I Felt Shocked and a Little cared"
    by John and Joan Enos

    May 4, 1970: Four Children Dead
    An interview with Thomas Slomba by K. Smith

    Four Dead in Ohio: The Kent State Massacre
    An interview with Mile Alewitz by Tim Vance

    "Now Is the Time of the Furnaces, and Only Light Should Be Seen"
    by Kent Students for a Democratic Society

    It Couldn t Go On Like This
    by Jim Vacarella

    Students From Then and Now Pass On Painful Lessons of Kent State
    by Frances X. Clines

    Survivors Mark Kent State Shootings
    by Amy Beth Graves

    Proof to Save the Guardsmen
    by Alan Stang

    Military Men Never Lie?
    by Justin Stine

    Memorial Situation Saddening
    by Justin Stine

    Peaceful Rally Ends Fatally
    by Justin Stine

    Kent State's Commemorations Not Relevant to May 4
    by William A. Gordon

    Prentice Parking Lot Markers a Long Time Coming
    by Justin Stine

    Guardsmen May Have Lied About Reasons for Shooting
    by Justin Stine

    'Flowers Are Better Than Bullets'
    by Justin Stine

    Student Killed on Parents' Anniversary
    by Justin Stine

    Remembering the Life of a Victim
    by Justin Stine

    Shots Took Life of All-American Student
    by Justin Stine

    Your Campus in 1970
    by Justin Stine

    Students Must Realize May 4 Importance
    by Justin Stine

    Who Spoke Up?
    by Nancy Zaroulis and Gerald Sullivan

    The Politics of Public Memory at Kent State, 1970-2001
    by Jutta Weldes and Mark Laffey

    Socialist view: The spark that set it off
    by Sherry Wolf and Mike Alewitz

    Conservative view: Who REALLY Was Responsible for the Shootings?
    by Barclay D. McMillen and William Armstrong

    Commentary, Memories, eyewitness accounts of May 4, 1970
  • Ralph Solonitz: Meet you at the Victory Bell.
  • WKSU-FM: "Remembering Kent State, 1970" documentary.
  • Larry L. Rose: Kent State shootings shocked Viet vet.
  • Richard Zitrin: 30 Years Later, the Pain of Kent State Remains.
  • Alan King: Four dead in Ohio: Memories of Kent State.
  • CNN: Remembering Kent State. (Includes Audio and Video)
  • Digital Journalist: Bitter Passage: Kent State and the Fall of Saigon.
  • Howard Ruffner: Eyewitness: Photos and RealAudio.
  • Marianne Fulton: Observances. (Includes photos and links)
  • Oral Histories: Three Eyewitnesses With RealAudio.
  • Chron. of Higher Educ.: Student Journalists of 1970 Return to Kent State 30 Years After.
  • Columbus Dispatch: Kent State photos freeze tragedy in time.
    :: List Continually Updated

    Audio Reports
  • 30th anniversary of Kent State killings -- Pacifica Radio - May 04, 2000, 10:11 PM
  • Kent State remembered -- All Things Considered/NPR - May 04, 2000, 10:21 PM
  • Remembering Kent State After 30 Years -- NPR. - May 04, 2000, 1:13 PM :: List Continually Updated

    Also of Interest:
    What Kent State's Memorial Lacks
    By William A. Gordon


    Books about
    KSU, or by
    May 4 authors

    "13 Seconds"
    [includes DVD]

    "The Kent State Tragedy"

    "I Was There"

    "Killings at Kent State"

    "13 seconds: Confrontation at Kent State"

    "Kent State and May 4th: A Social Science Perspective"

    cover "Hippies"

    "Four Dead
    in Ohio"

    "The Kent State Coverup"

    "From Camelot to Kent State : The Sixties..."

    "Kent State/May 4"

    "The Kent State Incident: Impact of..."


  • Fire in the Streets: America in the 1960s
  • Truth About Kent State
  • The Report of the President's Commission on Campus Unrest
  • Mayday, Kent State
  • Thirteen Seconds: Confrontation at Kent State
  • Click Here
    For More
    Books About
    Kent State

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    In Association with


    Protest Songs

  • Ohio, Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young
  • Fixin to Die Rag,(short) Country Joe and the Fish
  • Fixin to Die Rag, Country Joe and the Fish
  • Fortunate Son, Creedence Clearwater Revival
  • War,(short) Edwin Starr
  • War, Edwin Starr
  • Masters of War, Bob Dylan
  • The Times, They Are a-Changin', Bob Dylan
  • Revolution, The Beatles
  • More Music of the Time

    Pro-War Songs
  • The Green Beret, Barry Sadler

    Images of War
  • RealAudio Slideshow

    May 4 Photos

    Paul Tople's May 4 Portfolio

  • View the photos

  • Alan Canfora's May 4 site
  • Kent May 4 Center
  • Prof. J. Gregory Payne's
  • CyBURR 1990
  • CyBURR 1995
  • CyBURR 2000
  • Iowa State e-Library Archive
  • May 4 on TV (2000)
  • May4.Net
  • May 4 30-Years Later
  • May 4 Library Archives
  • Mike & Kendra's May 4 site
  • Kent May 4 Center
  • May 4th Task Force
  • Kent State Anti-War Committee

    Vietnam Specials
  • Wellesley College Vietnam War Links
  • Head-Royce School Vietnam War Links
  • "Vietnam: An Elusive Peace"

    Journalism Jobs
  • JMC alumni employment opportunities

    JMC Notes
    Read the DKS daily on the Internet
  • The Daily Kent Stater, Kent State s student-run newspaper, is available on the Web.

    View TV2 daily on the Internet
  • TV2, Kent State s student-run television station, offers nightly broadcasts on the Web. The 5:30 p.m. and 6:30 p.m. broadcasts can be viewed after 10 p.m., eastern time.

    Listen live to WKSU on the Internet
  • WKSU-FM, the Kent State University broadcast service featuring NPR News and classical music, ranked as the number 15 Internet Broadcaster with 72,501 hours of Total Time Spent Listening (TTSL) for the week of January 12, 2004 according to Arbitron Internet Broadcast Ratings. Click here for Corey Deitz on Radio.

    Listen live to WKSR on the Internet

  • WKSR-AM is the student-run radio station on Kent State's main campus. The station broadcasts on the university's cable TV network and on the internet.

    The Gray Lady undressed
  • Who owns the title of "The Guy Who Exposed Jayson Blair?" In this corner is Howard Kurtz, noted media critic for the Washington Post. In the other is Mike Gardner, not-so-noted cub reporter for the Daily Kent Stater. "For the record, Mr. Kurtz did not break the Jayson Blair story; Mike Gardner of the Daily Kent Stater did."
    Cleveland Scene 9/07/03

    Jeff Fruit, who heads the journalism and mass media program at Kent State University, stands at the entrance of Franklin Hall, the future home of the program. [Ed Suba Jr. / Akron Beacon Journal] Media majors will get new home
  • Kent State to renovate venerable Franklin Hall. Officials hope School of Journalism and Mass Communication can move to North Campus, university's oldest section, by 2007. [MORE]
    Akron beacon Journal 6/9/05
  • The 80-year-old Franklin Hall will get an approximately $21.5 million face-lift. [MORE]
    Summer Stater 6/15/05

    Renovations to begin in Franklin Hall as JMC prepares for relocation

  • Earlier: The reconstruction of Franklin Hall is under way. Faculty and architects are in the planning stages of the project that will create a new building for the School of Journalism and Mass Communication.
    Daily Kent Stater 9/24/03

    Franklin Hall renovations create JMC's future home
  • Earlier: The School of Journalism and Mass Communication will have a little more leg room in the future. Regardless of how much money the state gives, the school is moving forward with the Franklin Hall renovations, which will be complete no later than Fall 2007.
    Daily Kent Stater 11/18/04

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  • For information on the KSU Alumni Association, please call (330) 672-KENT or toll free at 1 (888) 320-KENT, or e-mail the Association at

  • Alumni who want to volunteer to speak in JMC classes, please e-mail Barbara McFarland or call (330) 672-2572.

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  • Audio/Video Documentary:
    Four Dead in Ohio: 36th Anniversary of Kent State Shootings

    Listen to Segment || Download Show mp3      
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          Read Transcript


    Click HERE for video of press conference announcing release of 'Get Set! Point! Fire!' audiotape.

    CNN ABC News May 4, 1970 AP News David Crosby Don Henley The Year That Trembled May 4th 2003 Dean Kahler The Day the War Came Home Symposium on Democracy 2001 Nixon and Vietnam German film Student film Student film Silent film, May 3, 1970 Student film 1970
    Please click on each image.

  • Click for Our Generation Podcast: Kent State

    2007 Commemoration Headlines

    Kent State ceremony honors Virginia Tech victims

    The campus bell tolled Friday for two tragedies separated by a generation as Kent State memorialized its four dead at the hands of Ohio National Guardsmen and the 32 killed at Virginia Tech by a gunman.

    The Kent State Victory Bell rang 32 times at midmorning for last month's victims of the Virginia Tech shooter, who took his own life, then rang again at midday for the annual commemoration of the May 4, 1970, shootings at the Ohio college.

    The afternoon ceremony on the 37th anniversary of the Kent State shootings, which happened during a Vietnam-era war protest, had the feel of an anti-war rally as speakers denounced the U.S. war in Iraq and called for student activism to halt it.

    "This has got to be a peace movement," said anti-war activist Cindy Sheehan, who choked up as she recounted the death of her son in Iraq. "What an honor it is to be welcomed into the Kent State family."

    Fellow anti-war activist Tom Hayden urged students to lobby against the war.

    The Virginia Tech commemoration was scheduled to coincide with the time of the second of two fatal attacks there April 16.

    "I choked up. It's an emotional thing," said Sarah Lund-Goldstein, a Kent State senior and part of the campus group that organized the commemoration. "We feel it's very important to understand that a grieving campus is not just one from 37 years ago."

    A crowd estimated by police at 200 to 300 sat on a sun-drenched, grassy hillside and heard speakers memorialize the Kent State students.

    Mary Ann Vecchio, 51, of Miami, the subject of a Pulitzer Prize-winning photo showing her with arms outstretched over the body of shooting victim Jeffrey Miller, told the gathering her experience on the campus that the day in 1970 will always be with her.

    "Time has passed. Time goes on. We miss you here today," she said, invoking Miller's memory. "I'll always be here at Kent for you."

    A survivor, Alan Canfora, said this week that an analysis of static-filled audio from the 1970 campus shootings revealed a military order to open fire. It has long been a mystery what prompted the 13 seconds of gunfire.

    After the shootings, the FBI concluded it could only speculate on whether an order was given to fire. One theory was that a Guardsman panicked or fired intentionally at a student and that others fired when they heard the shot. Eight Guardsmen were acquitted of federal civil rights charges.

    Canfora, 58, one of nine students wounded in the shooting, located the tape in Yale University's archives about the event. He has called for new federal and state investigations.

    ::Associated Press 5/04/07


  • Beacon Journal: Cindy Sheehan urges KSU crowd to 'a new revolution'
  • Assessor remembers Kent St. shootings
  • Editorial: A voice from the past
  • Connie Schultz: Kent State tape can't explain why

    Kent State marks 1970 shootings

    Display of boots Kent State University in Ohio Friday marked the 37th anniversary of the day National Guardsmen shot and killed four students during a Vietnam War protest.

    With anti-war activist Cindy Sheehan as the keynote speaker, events include a display of boots representing the number of lives lost in the Iraq War, the Daily Kent Stater reports.

    In addition, the university library opened for public viewing an archival collection of letters and other materials dealing with the events that left four students dead and nine wounded.

    Materials range from iconic photographs to the original FBI documents with J. Edgar Hoover's signature.

    One letter from a group of French students has the letter "X" in President Richard Nixon's name replaced with a Nazi swastika.

    Another written by Jonathan Pannor, 9, suggests the country would be better off without a National Guard.

    ::United Press International 5/04/07
    ::Photo: Associated Press 5/04/07

    Activist Hayden speaks at KSU

    Upon his introduction to a packed and excited Kiva audience at Kent State University Thursday, author and peace activist Tom Hayden mused about how his Web site,, was mentioned during his introduction. "They used to call me "Tom Hayden-dot-communist," he joked. [MORE]

    :: Record-Courier 5/04/07

    Kent State, Gov. Rhodes and the FBI
    Why Four Died in Ohio

    Ten days after Governor James A. Rhodes assumed office on January 14, 1963, a Cincinnati FBI agent wrote Director J. Edgar Hoover a memo stating:

    "At this moment he [Rhodes] is busier than a one-armed paper hanger . . . . Consequently, I do not plan to establish contact with him for a few months. We will have no problem with him whatsoever. He is completely controlled by an SAC [Special Agent in Charge] contact, and we have full assurances that anything we need will be made available promptly. Our experience proves this assertion."

    Why would the FBI assert that the newly-inaugurated governor of Ohio is "completely controlled"? Media sources like Life magazine noted the governor's alleged ties to organized crime and the Mafia in specific. [MORE]

    ::Counterpunch 5/04/07

    Shooting reunion

    REUNION: Victims wounded in the 1970 Kent State University shooting that killed four students are reunited during the dedication of an historic marker at the site of the shootings May 2, 2007, in Kent, Ohio. Shown, from left, are Mary Ann Vecchio, hand outstreached, Dean Kahler, center left, Alan Canfora center right, James Russell, background center, and Joseph Lewis, right hand outstretched. All, except Vecchio, who is the woman in the iconic image kneeling over slain student Jeffrey Miller, were shot. [AP Photo/The Plain Dealer, Lynn Ischay]

    Gere Goble
    Will we ever learn from Kent deaths?

    I am a graduate of Kent State University. I am proud of my alma mater. Over the years, I've recommended it very highly to a number of promising young high school journalists. I tell them about the great campus, the diverse student body, the dedicated professors. I tell them what a cool little city Kent is. I tell them where to find pizza and a place to shop.

    And if they ask, I tell them about May 4, 1970, when National Guardsmen fired into a crowd of students, killing four and injuring nine.

    When I was younger, people asked more often.

    The first time, it caught me off guard. As a college junior, I had a summer job at the paper in Marion, Ind. A reporter took me to meet the county commissioners -- three red-cheeked, beefy good old boys who greeted me very kindly and asked where I went to school. They expected to hear "Northwestern." I proudly answered "Kent State."

    Their faces went blank. "They still shootin' people?" one asked. [MORE]

    ::Mansfield News-Journal 4/27/07

    Shooting site

    MEMORIAL: Students walk past the site of the 1970 shootings at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio. Alan Canfora and several other survivors of the May 4, 1970 shootings that killed four students, released an audio tape made by a student on that fateful day. [AP Photo/Tony Dejak]

    The May 4 tape
    Beyond the static and high-pitched sounds, what exactly?

    Many who witnessed the shootings at Kent State University 37 years ago recall a flank of National Guardsmen turning in unison and then firing into the crowd. Were the soldiers following orders? The question has haunted recollections of that tragic day, four young people shot dead.

    Now Alan Canfora has come forth with a copy of a tape recording (digitally enhanced), arguing the words ``Right here,'' ``Get set!'' ``Point!'' and ``Fire!'' can be heard. ``The evidence speaks for itself,'' Canfora declared this week. ``There was an order to fire.''

    The trouble is, amid the static and high-pitched sounds, little can be detected with any certainty, let alone clear commands. Perhaps an independent assessment, aided by new technology and short of the federal investigation Canfora has proposed, is the avenue to answering this lingering question, for completing a portion of the historical record.

    What should be recalled is how invested Canfora has become in that dreadful day, his penchant well-known for imagining conspiracies. Remember, too, that nothing of this kind has surfaced in all the examinations of the past, including court cases, though many have wondered about a silent command.

    All these years later, it would be most valuable to learn what led to the gunfire (beyond the carelessness of James Rhodes, then the Ohio governor). It is doubtful that Alan Canfora has heard the truth.

    ::Akron Beacon Journal 5/03/07

    Barry Rozner
    Kent State massacre left indelible mark on Stone

    Sandy Scheuer They are the phone calls that become the postholes in your life.

    They’re not simply life-altering moments, but an instant that makes every ring from that point forward cause you to pause and fear the voice on the other end.

    For Steve Stone, Friday will mark one of those indelible moments. It is the 37th anniversary of the Kent State shootings.

    “It was May 4, 1970, and I was in Amarillo, Texas, playing for the Giants in the minors, when the call came,’’ Stone recalls. “I remember the words ‘Sandy’s dead.’ That’s what I remember most.’’

    Sandy Scheuer was a “sweetheart’’ of Stone’s fraternity at Kent State, and the girlfriend of one of Stone’s buddies.

    She was one of 13 wounded and four killed by National Guardsmen during a Vietnam War protest which Stone almost certainly would have been at had he not graduated six weeks earlier and left the campus to resume his minor-league baseball career.

    “Her boyfriend was in jail for breaking curfew, but somebody in the apartment I lived in suggested that they go down and check out the demonstration,’’ Stone remembers. “As I heard the story later, there were guys on either side of Sandy, two of my frat brothers, but they were facing up the hill and toward the guards, and she was facing down the hill, and they shot her through back of her neck.

    “She never saw it, never knew it was coming. She was dead before she hit the ground. [MORE]

    ::Chicago Daily Herald 5/03/07

    May 4 marker dedicated
    State honors historic KSU site with plaque near Taylor Hall

    Historical marker Thirty-seven years after Allison Krause, Jeffrey Miller, Sandra Scheuer and William Schroeder were killed near the spot, a historical marker recalling the May 4, 1970 shootings at Kent State University that resulted in their deaths and the wounding of nine other students was officially dedicated Wednesday.

    The double-sided Ohio Historical Marker titled "Kent State University: May 4, 1970" was put in place recenlty in the shade of a tree between Taylor Hall, an academic building, and Prentice Hall, a dormitory. It was officially made a part of the KSU landscape Wednesday, with Tom Grace, Dean Kahler, Joe Lewis, Jim Russell and Alan Canfora, who were wounded in 1970, and numerous former and current KSU students, faculty and community members looking on.

    Dr. Kathy Stafford, vice president for university relations and a senior at KSU in 1970, helped lead the committee that applied for the marker. She said the drive to get it installed began with an "eloquent" letter in 2005 from Grace to then-KSU president Carol Cartwright, seeking a "more permanent narrative in a very prominent place at the site" of the shootings.

    Grace spoke Wednesday about how "Kent State not only belongs to Ohio but to the nation."

    "We can read this plaque to gain a better understanding of our history," Grace said.

    According to KSU President Lester Lefton, the marker "embraces the significance of how May 4 has seeped into the fabric of Kent State ... it brings to life the words inscribed on the May 4 memorial: Inquire. Learn. Reflect."

    He said May 4, 1970 holds a significant place in the history of the state, and has been the catalyst for change at the university, leading to a focus on civil discourse, a model for the teaching of tolerance and diversity.

    The marker contains information both on the buildup of the Vietnam War that led to protests, anti-war rallies and the burning of the campus ROTC building two days before the shootings.

    ::Record-Courier 5/03/07

  • May 4 wounded still carry scars, but fight for change

    Shooting site

    AT THE PAGODA: Two students walk toward the pagoda at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, Tuesday, May 1, 2007, past the spot where Ohio National Guard troops fired on student anti-war protestors on May 4, 1970. Survivors of a 1970 Ohio National Guard shooting that killed four Kent State students during an anti-war protest released a recently uncovered audio tape on Tuesday that they said clearly reflects a military order to fire on the demonstrators. [AP Photo/Tony Dejak]

    Kent State Shootings Audio Fuzzy To Some

    Not everyone who listened to a recording of the National Guard opening fire on students protesting the Vietnam war at Kent State heard the same thing.

    At a news conference in Kent, Ohio, Tuesday, Alan Canfora played a CD he said was copied from a reel-to-reel tape recorded by a student who placed a microphone out his dormitory window.

    A New York Times correspondent said although there was a lot of static, it was possible to hear someone shout "Point"; Canfora claims the full sequence says: "Right here. Get set. Point. Fire."

    The sound of 67 shots being fired over a 13-second period is then heard, during which four students were killed and nine others were wounded.

    Kent State graduate and current KSU Associate Professor Carole Barbaro told the Cleveland Plain Dealer she hadn't heard the same things Canfora had at the news conference, but said it is important for Department of Justice officials to scrutinize it further.

    "If the tape is verified, we can put the blame on the person who gave the order to shoot," she said.

    Eight guardsmen were acquitted of charges in 1974.

    ::United Press International 5/02/07

  • >Click HERE to listen to the order to shoot given by the Ohio National Guard.

    Letter to the editor
    Kent State case is 'buried deep, real deep'

    May 2, 2007

    I am a resident of Ohio and an alumnus of Kent State University. I was a junior when the Kent State Shootings occurred on May 4, 1970. The 11 p.m. News on WKYC-TV3 showed an alarming film segment of a student with a gun waving above his head and running toward a group of Campus Police/Ohio National Guardsmen. He was out of breath, but shouting that: "I had to shoot, I had to shoot".

    The scene then switched to an ambulance arriving on campus. I knew who the student was with the gun. I called the FBI Office in Cleveland the next day and gave them a ton of information on illegal and unlawful activities this individual was involved in as a student/informant/photographer since 1968 at Kent State.

    The FBI said they would get back to me -- they never did. Instead they concealed the informant's tracks thoroughly. The footage of the film with audio, as I described to the FBI disappeared and has yet to surface again -- anywhere.

    As the case was pieced together by media and investigative authors, the FBI/Kent Campus Police informant was the probable catalyst of the Kent State shootings, according to student and National Guard witnesses.

    After repeated requests to governmental sources asking the FBI to "come clean" on what they did as a result of my voluntary testimony to them on May 5, 1970, they have remained silent and so have all elected officials both federal and state. I have submitted packages of evidence, film, photographs, and testimonies to them regarding the FBI/informant/photographer and his grave actions on May 4th, but they will not even acknowledge the information that was sent to them including certified and registered mailings.

    A friend of mine who is an attorney in the Akron, Ohio area got my package of indicting information and contacted two close friends who work for in the FBI. They personally got back to him within two weeks in January 2006 -- and they told him that the Kent State case is "buried deep, real deep."

    Joseph M. Sima
    North Olmsted, Ohio

    BUZZFLASH: Four Dead in Ohio

    Cindy Sheehan May 4, 2007 will be the 37th year since the Kent State, Ohio massacre where four anti-war protesters were killed by Ohio National Guardsmen during a protest against Richard Nixon's announced escalation in Vietnam.

    On that day in 1970, anti-Vietnam war sentiment in the entire nation was high as hundreds of soldiers were coming home in flag-draped coffins every week and we were bombarded daily with images of burning villages and screaming Vietnamese children. The images were harsh, but what was even harsher was the Nixon regime escalating a war in a Johnsonian way when he had promised he would end the quagmire in Vietnam, if elected.

    The Kent State protest rose spontaneously against Nixon's pronouncement. Anti-war sentiment was high on campuses all over America, and soldiers during that time were in full-blown mutiny and actively protest the war "in country" and here in the states. By 1970, there were a reported 209 "fragging" (lower rank soldiers killing their superiors in the field) and well over 55,000 deserters. A young Alabama Air National Guardsman named George W. Bush would soon add his name to the deserters when he failed to report for duty in 1972. It seemed like people from all demographics really cared enough to get out from behind their TV sets and out from behind the protection of their comfortable lives to join protests all over the country. [Click here for MORE] 5/02/07

    Tape 'reveals order'
    to shoot Vietnam protesters

    >Click HERE to listen to the order to shoot given by the Ohio National Guard.

    >Click HERE for video of press conference announcing release of 'Get Set! Point! Fire!' audiotape.

  • 37-year-old recording of Kent State killings found
  • National Guard always denied order to fire

    By Suzanne Goldenberg in Washington
    Wednesday May 2, 2007
    Guardian (UK)

    Alan Canfora The command, as Alan Canfora heard it on a 37-year-old audio recording recently discovered in a government archive, appeared to leave no room for doubt. "Right here. Get set. Point. Fire." Then came 13 seconds of gunfire. When it ended, four students were dead and nine injured, and the shootings at Kent State University became engraved in America's collective memory as one of the most painful days of the Vietnam era.

    Yesterday, Mr Canfora, pictured right, who was among the nine students wounded on that day, demanded a new investigation into the shootings at Kent State in Ohio, saying it was time to settle conclusively what led the contingent of National Guard troops to open fire on unarmed student protesters.

    "There has been a 37-year cover-up at Kent State. The commanding officers have long denied there was a verbal command to fire. They put the blame on the triggermen," Mr Canfora told the Guardian.

    He said he wants the FBI to use new technology to analyse the recording. He also said he planned to post an audio clip of the recording on two websites.

    Mr Canfora, who was 21 years old at the time of the shootings, was barely 60 metres away from the Guards when they opened fire. He was shot in the wrist.

    "They stopped, turned, raised the weapons, began to shoot and continued to shoot for 13 seconds," he said. "It was like a firing squad."

    His life was transformed by the events that day. One of his friends was among the dead, and he has devoted much of his time over the last 37 years trying to bring the Ohio National Guard and the federal authorities to account for the killings.

    The Guard has always claimed that no order was given to open fire, and there is speculation that the students were cut down after one of the troops panicked, triggering a volley of gunfire.

    Although eight guardsmen were indicted, no one was ever prosecuted, and the episode exposed the deep disdain of the Nixon administration for dissenters. The families of the 13 killed and wounded pursued a civil suit against the state governor and the National Guard, which was eventually settled out of court.

    The materials from that civil suit were eventually stored in the archives at Yale University, where Mr Canfora recently rediscovered a 30-minute recording of the protest.

    The recording was made by a fellow student, Terry Strubbe, who placed an old-fashioned reel-to-reel tape recorder on the window sill of his dorm room, which overlooked the protests. Mr Strubbe, who has declined to speak to reporters, still has the original recording in a bank safety deposit box.

    However, a spokesman for Mr Strubbe, Joseph Bendo, told the Guardian yesterday he was unsure whether there were sounds of an order to open fire on the original recording.

    "It was never heard on our version of the tape, but maybe nobody ever listened. It's unusual that nobody has heard it before in 37 years. Other people have heard this tape in the past, and maybe they weren't listening for it," he said.

    But the power of America's memories of that day are undeniable. Nearly two generations after the shootings at Kent State, it now seems unthinkable that the National Guard could ever use live ammunition against students.

    The events of that day were relived endlessly in shocking images of teenagers crouching over the corpses of their fellow students in the US heartland. They also led to protests which radiated across the country, shutting down hundreds of college campuses, and forcing Richard Nixon to decamp Washington for Camp David.


  • Victim says tape of Kent State shootings reveals order to fire
  • Kent State Survivor Wants Truth
  • Kent State Audio Tape Released
  • Old tape analyzed in KSU shootings / Survivor hears evidence that case should reopen
  • 2001 story: Kent State tragedy echoes on audiotape
  • Kent State Tape Is Said to Reveal Orders
  • Recording renews interest in Kent State shooting
  • Looking for proof / May 4 victim: guardsmen were ordered to fire
  • Panels to focus on democracy

    KSU shows support for Virginia Tech
    with afternoon vigil

    Virginia Tech ribbon Kent State President Lester Lefton said many people in the Kent State community know the "overwhelming shock, disbelief and grief" Virginia Tech is experiencing because of the community's own experiences with the May 4, 1970 shootings.

    "Although nothing will ever look or feel the same to those who were living, working and studying on the Virginia Tech campus four days ago — and nothing can bring back the precious and promise-filled lives that were lost — Kent State is a testament to the resilience of the human spirit and its capacity to create great good from great pain," Lefton said to the hundreds gathered in Risman Plaza.
    :: DAILY KENT STATER, 4/20/07

  • Annual May 4 ceremony at Kent State to honor Virgina Tech students




    By Alan Canfora
    Alan Canfora NOTE: Unarmed anti-war Kent State University student Alan Canfora takes a stand against the Ohio National Guard on the Kent State campus on May 4, 1970, right, before being shot through the right wrist. [Photo: John Filo]

    In recent months, while researching mountains of evidence for my two forthcoming May 4-related books, I was stunned to discover absolute corroborated proof of the verbal order to shoot and kill. In the five seconds before the 67 gunshots were fired, a National Guard commander shouted this verbal command at the top of Blanket Hill: "Right here! Set! Point! Fire!"

    For daily online updates of supporting evidence leading to our imminent announcement, see: and [Click here for MORE]

    ::ALAN CANFORA 4/19/07

    New May 4th Documentary filming
    for the National Geographic Channel

    National Geographic logo "Raw History" Six one-hour episodes employing rare pictures, video and other information to uncover new insights into iconic events. Among the subjects the series will cover are Iwo Jima, the assassination attempt on President Ronald Reagan and the shooting at Kent State University. "You'll find the truth is more complex than the conventional wisdom," Michael Cascio, senior VP of special programming at NatGeo, said. The show is scheduled to air in the third quarter of 2007.
    :: TVWEEK.COM, 4/16/07

    37th Annual May 4th Commemoration

    Tom Hayden Cindy Sheehan

    KEYNOTERS: Tom Hayden and Cindy Sheehan are scheduled to speak.

    MAY 3, 2007

    7:30 p.m., Symposium, KIVA Auditorium

      The May 4 Task Force and The Symposium on Democracy present: Tom Hayden

    11 p.m., Silent Candlelight March, The Commons

      Participants gather at the Victory Bell on the KSU Commons between 10:30 and 11 p.m. and proceed to the key locations connected to the events of May 4, 1970. The walk is approximately 1.3 miles and is wheelchair and stroller accessible.

    MAY 4, 2007

    12 a.m. - 12:24 p.m., Silent Candlelight Vigil, Prentice parking lot

      Participants sign up for 1/2 hour vigils in each of the four cordoned-off spaces where students died May 4, 1970. To sign up for a vigil, please email the May 4 Task Force or telephone 330-672-3096.

    All-Day Display, "Eyes Wide Open", Commons
      For the past two years, the May 4 Task Force has brought large scale representations of U.S. servicemen and women who have lost their lives in the Iraq and Afganistan wars. This display, created by the American Friends Service Committee, uses boots to represent the number of lives lost. For more information, visit

    Noon, "The First Casualty of War is TRUTH", 37th Annual Kent State May 4 Commemoration, Commons

      Keynote Speaker:
        Cindy Sheehan, mother of Casey Sheehan, KIA in Iraq.

      Other Speakers:
        Rosemary Palmer, mother of Lance Corporal Edward “Augie” Schroeder, KIA in Iraq.
        Tom Hayden, founding member of the Students for a Democratic Society.
        Gene Young, witness to Jackson State shootings, May 14, 1970.
        Joe Lewis Jr., wounded at Kent State, May 4, 1970.
        Jim Russell, wounded at Kent State, May 4, 1970.
        Tim Ryan, U.S. Representative for the 17th District of Ohio.

      :: May 4th Task Force

    Democracy and Peace? Historical Links
    and Implications for World Order

    Symposium logo Do democracies help create a more peaceful world?

    The eighth annual Symposium on Democracy, titled “Democracy and Peace? Historical Links and Implications for World Order,” plans to address this question May 2 – 3 at the Kent Campus. The symposium will feature a keynote address by well-known Vietnam political activist and author Tom Hayden, a student essay competition and panel discussions by leading scholars on the relationship between democracy and world peace.

    All events are free and open to the public. Registration is not necessary. For specific questions, e-mail or call 330-672-8949.

  • Click here for the schedule of events.

  • :: The Symposium on Democracy, 4/19/07

    Retired Lt. Gen. Charles Fassinger

    HIS STORY: "I have no reason ever to doubt, (that) as a group, they felt what they said they felt," retired Lt. Gen. Charles Fassinger said. "They had a right to fire if they felt their lives were in danger." [MAY 4th TASK FORCE]

    National Guardsman meets
    with May 4 Task Force for first time

    Was the shooting justified? - That was the question on the May 4 Task Force members' minds when they met with retired Lt. Gen. Charles Fassinger, one of the commanding officers of the Ohio National Guard in May 1970.

    April 5 was the first time a member of the National Guard has met with the May 4 Task Force.

    Fassinger answered the Task Force members' questions for two hours at the meeting. Associate provost Laura Davis and Carole Barbato, associate professor of speech communication, arranged for Fassinger's visit to Kent State. Davis and Barbato both teach a May 4 class and interviewed Fassinger to document the perspective of a key member of the National Guard.

    Jim Mueller, Kent State alumnus and former co-chair of the May 4 Task Force, said people at the meeting kept coming back to the question of whether the National Guard was justified in shooting at the students.

    Davis was a Kent State student during May 4, 1970, and witnessed the shootings. She said the Guard only has the right to fire in two possible situations: If its members were given an order to shoot, or if they felt their lives were in danger.

    "From evidence that I observed and from what I have read since then and from photographs that I've viewed, the guards were not in imminent danger," Davis said. "There was no immediate risk to the guards' lives."

    On May 4, 1970, Fassinger was standing behind the troops who fired their weapons.

    "I have no reason ever to doubt, (that) as a group, they felt what they said they felt," Fassinger said. "They had a right to fire if they felt their lives were in danger." ...more
    :: Daily Kent Stater 4/16/07

    Naming the source 40 years later

    On the Dec. 11, 2006 New York Times op-ed page, USC Annenberg professor emeritus Murray Fromson for the first time discloses the source of his 1967 report for CBS that a top American general considered the Vietnam War unwinnable. The report from Saigon, which also ran under Johnny Apple's byline in the NYT, was the first to suggest that senior officers believed the U.S. could lose. It enraged President Lyndon Johnson and Gen. William Westmoreland, the Army's chief in Vietnam, and altered the politics of the war. Fromson describes the scene then and what has changed:

    The general pledged us to absolute confidentiality. Later, when Johnny and I compared notes to ensure we had understood him correctly, both of us were stunned. His article was published 24 hours later. Mine, in the era before satellites, reached CBS News in New York days later. Here, in essence, is how we quoted the general for our reports:
    Keep reading...
    ::, 12/11/06

    May 4 Task Force looks to move historic memorabilia across campus

    Memorabilia from the events of May 4 have been on display in the May 4 Resource Room in the Library since the spring of 1973. Now, more than 30 years later, members of the May 4 Task Force are asking to move it all.

    John Behnken, president of the task force, said the organization wants the resource room to be closer to the memorial, which sits outside Taylor Hall. ...more.
    :: Daily Kent Stater, 11/16/06

    Our Generation

    Episode: Kent State

    Sunday, November 26, 8 AM

    Note: All times are Eastern

    Search for other upcoming episodes

    This new series takes you on a journey to visit the places, the people and events that have shaped the largest and most vocal generation in American history: The Baby Boomers. Our resident historian, Steve Gillon, tells the stories of the unforgettable events that defined this generation and changed the world. The Vietnam War was perhaps the most defining element of the Boomer generation. By 1970 thousands of lives had already been lost in a faraway conflict that seemed to have no end. And then, on May 4th, the war came home when four students were killed in an anti-war protest at Kent State.

    Rating: TVPG

    Running Time:1800

    "Gaining Ground," A New Play About May 4

    Gaining Ground Welcome to northern Ohio in the waning days of the 1960s. Glenn Nardell begins work on a tree house for his son, Cliff. Unfortunately, Cliff is now 18 and wants nothing to do with a tree house. Instead, what he wants is to save the world through music, love and altruism. Fueled by sheer youthful optimism, he joins the Ohio National Guard--but his timing could not be worse and he winds up, gun in hand, on the front lines of the infamous Kent State shootings of May 4, 1970. Confused and driven by overwhelming guilt, Cliff returns home to claim his lonely inheritance--his father's tree house--and doesn't come down for 30 years. Now it's up to the new, more jaded generation to get Cliff down and demand that he get on with the all-important business of living.
    ::, Los Angeles, 10/03/06

    John Kifner of the New York Times

    MAY 4 REPORTER: John Kifner, The New York Times Beirut correspondent, spoke to about 200 people in the Kiva about his experiences both at The New York Times and covering wars. Kifner has been at the newspaper for more than 30 years. [GAVIN JACKSON | DAILY KENT STATER]

    'Everyone was just completely stunned'

    "It's pretty moving (being back at Kent State)," said New York Times correspondent John Kifner. "I look at that hillside (Blanket Hill), and it all comes back. It really brought back a lot of memories."

    Kifner was the only national reporter at Kent State on May 4.

    "(The National Guard) just started opening fire," Kifner said. "Everyone was just completely stunned ... There was just this complete, kind of stunned silence." ...more
    :: Daily Kent Stater 9/13/06

    National Guard at Taylor Hall

    TEAR GAS, BAYONETS AND BULLETS: May 4, 2006 marked the 36th anniversary of the shootings at Kent State University. Four students were killed when the Ohio National Guard opened fire. Even though the National Guard had fixed bayonets and threw tear gas, many students didn't believe the Guard had loaded rifles. [KENT STATE UNIVERSITY PHOTO]

    1968 student newspaper editor
    joins search for fbi spy terry norman

    David Yale tells Janis Froelich: "My CPA's nephew actually caused the shootings.''

    "He was an FBI informant and he was carrying a handgun that day. He was taking lots of photos of the protesters that day and when a group of students approached him, he fired over their heads. Then the big volley from the Guard rang out.''

    I knew immediately who David was talking about. Terry Norman was the only civilian known to be carrying a gun that day.

    David is a solid corporate citizen in Cleveland. He's an executive with Clear Channel, vice president of public affairs. I took him to be a credible source. ...more
    :: Tampa Tribune 4/30/06

    Kent State picks Tulane University executive as next president

    Lester Lefton Kent State University on Tuesday picked a Tulane University executive as its president.

    Lester Lefton, 59, will replace Carol A. Cartwright, who on Oct. 5 announced her retirement as president after 15 years. He will take over July 1.

    His base salary will be $350,000.

    As provost and senior vice president for academic affairs at Tulane, Lefton is responsible for overseeing the university's 10 deans and more than 500 faculty. He administered graduate school, libraries and international programs.

    Lefton was involved in getting Tulane functional again after Hurricane Katrina.

    Kent State had 23,622 students at its main Kent campus last academic year and 35,863 students when adding the students at its seven regional campuses.
    :: Associated Press via Akron Beacon Journal 5/09/06

    2006 Commemoration Headlines

    May 5, 2006

    Mary Ann Vecchio

    VECCHIO RETURNS: May 4 Task Force staff advisor Karen Cunningham (left) hugs Mary Ann Vecchio after she spoke at the May 4th commemoration Thursday, May 4, 2006 in Kent, Ohio. Vecchio was the young woman in the Pulitzer Prize winning photograph by John Filo. [KAREN SCHIELY | AKRON BEACON JOURNAL].

  • Mary Ann Vecchio to students: Take action [Akron Beacon Journal]

  • AUDIO: Mary Ann Vecchio Attends May 4 Remembrance [WKSU Radio]

  • Vecchio returns for May 4 event Protest follows KSU service [Record Courier]

     2700 markers

    LILACS: Kent State University student Stephanie Wright, 19, places lilacs on the marker of her friend Army Reservist Pfc. Devin J. Grella, 21, of Medina who was killed in Iraq Sept. 6, 2004. Grella's was one of 2700 markers placed on the commons of Kent State University by the Northwest Ohio Peace Coalition honoring soldiers who have died in Iraq and Afghanistan. The markers were part of the 36th Commemoration of the May 4th shootings on Thursday, May 4, 2006 in Kent, Ohio. [KAREN SCHIELY | AKRON BEACON JOURNAL].

  • Students protest KSU expulsion for assault arrest [Akron Beacon Journal]

  • Opinion: Still in shock over Kent-1970 [Cleveland Jewish News]

  • Plea for peace, demand for justice at Kent State [Cleveland Plain Dealer]

    May 4, 2006

  • Photo slideshow... click here [Daily Kent Stater]

    Carol Meyer

    TEARS: Florida resident Carol Meyer cries to himself during the 12-hour silent protest held at the May 4th victims memorials. [ALLIEY BENDER | DAILY KENT STATER].

  • 'It's important we never forget this'
    Friends, community remember the four lives lost on May 4, 1970
    On her way home from school, Ellen Spriestersbach used to pass a military tank guarding the intersection of Graham Road and Route 91. A senior at Stow High School in May 1970, Spriestersbach hasn't forgotten the events of May 4. She won't let herself forget....more

    [Daily Kent Stater]

  • Remembering the Kent State Shootings that Galvanized a Generation []

  • Peace march in downtown Kent [Daily Kent Stater]

  • Peace memorial bears names of fallen soldiers [Daily Kent Stater]

  • Candlelight vigil honors four slain students [Daily Kent Stater]

    Arlington Midwest Memorial

    FALLEN SOLDIERS: The Commons at Kent State University is filled with more than 2,400 symbolic tombstones in commemoration of the deaths of U.S. soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan. The North West Ohio Peace Coalition erected the Arlington Midwest Memorial, representing 2,406 soldiers who have died in Iraq, 285 soldiers who died in Afghanistan and 81 soldiers who have committed suicide. [RECORD COURIER]

  • Commentary: Why Kent State is important today [Boston Globe]

  • Opinion: How Kent State could happen again []

  • Column: Kent State and a terrible war []

  • This Week in History -- Kent State Shootings Remembered []

  • Professor recalls deadly events at Kent State 36 years ago [Villages Daily Sun]

    Candlelight walk

    IN MEMORY: President Carol Cartwright leads those walking in remembrance of May 4 down the sidewalk on East Main Street. [MICHELE ROEHRIG | DAILY KENT STATER]

  • Candlelight March Circles Campus [Daily Kent Stater]

  • Memorial inadequate for May 4 events, author says [Daily Kent Stater]

  • Panel discusses May 4's impact on politics [Daily Kent Stater]

  • Editorial: The long lost spirit of 1970 [Daily Kent Stater]

  • Opinion: May 4 is still relevant [Daily Kent Stater]

    May 3, 2006

    The Kent State Conspiracies: What Really Happened On May 4, 1970?

    Terry Norman The gunfire has just ended, almost as abruptly as it began. Student Harold Reid maneuvers his way up Blanket Hill among some of the casualties, perhaps a couple hundred feet from the National Guardsmen. That's when he notices a young man pointing a handgun in the direction of another man who is lying on the ground. The armed man obviously is not a member of the National Guard; he's wearing a light sports jacket and tan trousers, and a camera and a gas mask hang around his neck. When the man sees Reid, he begins to run.

    "Stop that man, he has a weapon!" shouts Reid, chasing after him.

    That man — Terrence Brookes Norman (photo, above right) — has never stopped running. ...more
    [Cleveland Free Times]

  • Students are not as involved today as in 1970, speaker says [Daily Kent Stater]

  • Peace activists heading to Kent State [Toledo Blade]

  • KSU to mark anniversary of student shootings [Plain Dealer]

    May 2, 2006

    Paul Rusesabagina

    HERO: Paul Rusesabagina speaks about his experience during the Rwanda genocide last night in the Auditorium.

  • Hero of Rwanda Gets Standing Ovation The entire audience gave a standing ovation to greet the hero who saved more than 1,000 lives during the genocide in Rwanda. The University Auditorium was filled last night with faculty, students and community members to listen to Paul Rusesabagina speak about his experience in Rwanda....more [Daily Kent Stater]