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Transcripts listing

Dan Rather Reports

Episode Number: 217

Episode Title: Civilians at War

Description: Tens of thousands of American citizens are serving their country in Iraq as civilian contractors. They are the untold story of the war with hundreds killed and wounded. Also, why aren't there more African Americans playing major league baseball, and on the anniversary of the Kent State shooting, a professor who witnessed the event and now teaches about it.

Transcript:

TONIGHT CIVILIANS AT WAR. (GUN SHOTS) THEY JUST KILLED HIM. OH JESUS OH MY GOD! THE UNSEEN AND UNTOLD STORY OF CONTRACTORS CAUGHT IN THE MIDDLE IN IRAQ. I FIGURED WE WERE ALL GOING TO BE KILLED. AND THEY STARTED JUST BOMBARDING US WITH ROCKS. YOU COULD SEE THERE WAS A TRENCH THAT WAS DUG ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE ROAD AND I'M THINKING THIS IS GOING TO BE BAD.

ALSO IF BASEBALL IS AMERICA'S PASTIME, WHY AREN'T THERE MORE AFRICAN-AMERICAN ON THE FIELD AND IN THE STANDS FOR AFRICAN-AMERICAN THERE IS NOT A LOT OF GREAT NOSTALGIA ABOUT JOE DIMAGGIO AND TED WILLIAMS AND BABE RUTH. I MEAN AS GREAT AS THEY ARE WHAT THEY REMIND AFRICAN-AMERICAN'S OF IS THAT THIS WAS AN ALL WHITE GAME. AND ECHOES OF THE PAST. THE ANNIVERSARY OF A DEADLY PROTEST FROM ANOTHER WAR AND WHAT A DIFFERENT TIME IT WAS. TODAY WHEN PEOPLE TALK ABOUT IRAQ AND ALL THE CONTROVERSY. IN MY MIND THE CONTROVERSY IS NOTHING LIKE IT WAS IN THE VIETNAM ERA. TONIGHT ON DAN RATHER REPORTS.

FOUR YEARS INTO THE WAR IN IRAQ MOST AMERICANS HAVE BECOME FAMILIAR WITH THE NUMBERS. MORE THAN 140,000 MEN AND WOMEN IN UNIFORM SERVING THEIR COUNTRY. MORE THAN 3300 DEAD AND AT LEAST 26000 INJURED. THESE FIGURES REPRESENT THE WAR'S PUBLIC BALANCE SHEET. BUT THERE IS ANOTHER TALLY, ANOTHER LEDGER WITH WHICH MOST CITIZENS ARE NOT FAMILIAR AND THAT SET OF NUMBERS TELLS THE HIDDEN STORY OF THE AMERICANS SERVING IN IRAQ AS CIVILIAN CONTRACTORS. HOW MANY ARE THERE? THIS PAST DECEMBER THE PENTAGON CENTRAL COMMAND COUNTED OFFICIALLY 100,000 MEN AND WOMEN, SOME PROVIDING SECURITY AND OTHERS PERFORMING SUPPORT SERVICES, COOKING MEALS, DOING LAUNDRY AND DRIVING SUPPLY TRUCKS FOR THE MILITARY JUST LIKE THEY'RE COUNTERPARTS IN UNIFORM, THESE OFTEN UNARMED CIVILIANS SERVING IN IRAQ HAVE ALSO FOUND THEMSELVES IN THE CROSSHAIRS OF THE INSURGENCY AND SECTARIAN VIOLENCE.

IT IS ONE OF THE UNTOLD STORIES OF THE IRAQ WAR.

HUNDREDS OF TRUCK CONVOYS CRISS CROSSING THE COUNTRY DELIVERING MUCH NEEDED SUPPLIES TO U.S. TROOPS. MANY OF THE MEN AND WOMEN IN THE CABS ARE NOT SOLDIERS BUT CIVILIANS, UNARMED AMERICAN CIVILIANS. THEY ARE PART OF A MORE THAN 100,000 STRONG FORCE OF PRIVATE CONTRACTORS IN IRAQ DOING SOME OF THE MOST DANGEROUS JOBS IN THE WORLD. ON OCTOBER 28, 2004, THE LEAD FUEL TRUCK IN THIS CONVOY HIT A MINE. THERE WAS NOTHING IN THE ROAD. EVEN THE KBR DRIVER SAID THERE WAS NOTHING IN THE ROAD. A MINE WAS PLANTED A SOLDIER IN THE CONVOY CAN BE HEARD ON THE RADIO AS ANOTHER SOLDIER FARTHER BACK VIDEOTAPED THE ATTACK.

THE DRIVER OF THE FUEL TRUCK, JOHN WOODSON, A CIVILIAN FROM TEXAS, BARELY SURVIVED THE EXPLOSION. I RAN OVER THE TANK MINE. IT-- IT IGNITED AND BLEW ME UP. IT BLEW ME THROUGH THE TOP OF THE CEILING OF THE-- TRUCK AND OUT-- UP TO 50 TO 60 FOOT AWAY FROM THE VEHICLE. AND I LANDED OUT IN THE DESERT. WOODSON HAD BEEN IN IRAQ FOR JUST FOUR MONTHS WORKING FOR KBR, FORMERLY A DIVISION OF HALLIBURTON. HE LOST A LEG AND MOST OF HIS EYESIGHT. ALL I REMEMBER IS SOLDIERS WORKING ON ME AT THAT POINT AND THEY KEPT TELLING ME TO STAY WITH ' EM, STAY WITH ' EM, DON'T DIE, DON'T GO. PRIOR TO GOING TO IRAQ I HAD 20/20 VISION IN BOTH EYES AND AFTER THESE INJURIES NOW I HAVE 37% VISION IN THE LOWER PART OF MY RIGHT EYE AND I CANNOT SEE AT ALL IN MY LEFT EYE. BEFORE THE WAR WOODSON HAD BEEN WORKING AS A WELL-PAID CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISOR IN HOUSTON. HE SIGNED ON TO REBUILD IRAQI OIL REFINERIES IN THE SPRING OF 2004 WHEN A HEADHUNTER FOR K-B-R OFFERED HIM A JOB

HE WANTED ME TO GO OVER TO WORK IN THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY. I GUESS THE-- IN THE COURSE OF A COUPLE MONTHS THOUGH TIMES HAD CHANGED. THEY SAID THERE WAS A HOLD ON THAT BUT-- WOULD I WANNA GO AS FAR AS THE TRUCKING DIVISION? AND SO I TOLD HIM, "YES." BECAUSE I WANTED TO DO MY PART FOR MY COUNTRY.

AFTER THE BOMB BLAST AND EMERGENCY CARE IN IRAQ, WOODSON WAS FLOWN HOME. NO LONGER ABLE TO WORK HE HAD TO FIND A LAWYER TO HELP HIM GET THE MEDICAL BENEFITS HE'D BEEN PROMISED. HE FELT COMFORTABLE-- TELLING ME ABOUT HIS PROBLEMS. ABOUT HIS MEDICAL ISSUES. ABOUT HIS HEALTH. AND-- AND HIS CARE HE WAS GIVING-- GETTING. AND SO HE ASKED ME TO KINDA HELP HIM OUT. COLE SPENT MORE THAN A YEAR BATTLING BOTH K-B-R, AND ITS INSURANCE COMPANY, AND DEMANDING HELP FROM GOVERNMENT AGENCIES. HE WON WORKERS' COMPENSATION CLAIMS AND MADE SURE WOODSON GOT MEDICAL COVERAGE UNDER A FEDERAL PROGRAM. BUT IN THE PROCESS TOBY COLE LEARNED HOW LITTLE ANYONE KNOWS ABOUT THE USE OF PRIVATE CONTRACTORS IN IRAQ. I THINK JUST ABOUT ANYTIME OVER THE PAST COUPLE OF YEARS YOU CAN FIND ON THE INTERNET OR ON TV HOW MANY SOLDIERS HAVE-- BEEN INJURED. YOU CAN'T FIND HOW MANY CONTRACTORS WERE INJURED. YOU CAN'T FIND HOW MANY WERE-- WERE BLOWN UP. HOW MANY WERE SENT BACK, DISABLED. THAT INFORMATION ISN'T OUT THERE. AND SO IF YOU BLOW UP A CONTRACTOR-- IT'S NOT THAT BIG OF A DEAL. BECAUSE THE PUBLIC REALLY DOESN'T KNOW ABOUT IT. EVEN THOUGH JOHN WOODSON WAS CAUGHT IN THE CROSSFIRE OF WAR, HE WASN'T COUNTED IN THE PENTAGON'S RECORD OF THE WOUNDED. IN FACT, THERE IS NO OFFICIAL MILITARY RECORD OF INJURIES TO PRIVATE CONTRACTORS. THE ONLY GOVERNMENT OFFICE THAT TRACKS CONTRACTORS IS A SMALL AGENCY THAT ADMINISTERS WORKERS COMPENSATION PROGRAMS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. FOUR YEARS INTO THIS WAR. THE RECORD SHOWS THAT 770 PRIVATE CONTRACTORS HAVE DIED AND ALMOST 8000 HAVE BEEN INJURED. DO YOU HAVE ANY IDEA HOW MANY TOTAL PEOPLE ARE INVOLVED? WELL THE LATEST CENSUS SEEMS TO SAY IT'S ABOUT 100,000. ALMOST AS MANY AS THE UNIFORMED MILITARY THAT WE HAVE IN-- IN IRAQ. NO ONE THINKS ABOUT THAT. REPRESENTATIVE JAN SCHAKOWSKY, A DEMOCRAT FROM ILLINOIS, HAS BEEN ASKING FOR INFORMATION ABOUT THE PRIVATE CONTRACTORS, THEIR INJURIES, AND THEIR MISSIONS FOR ALMOST A YEAR. IT'S NEVER TALKED ABOUT. THERE ARE UNCLEAR GUIDELINES OF WHAT THEIR MISSION IS, WHO THEY REPORT TO, WHAT THEIR ACCOUNTABILITY IS. AND AS MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, AND AS MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC, DON'T YOU THINK THAT WE OUGHTA KNOW? WE MAY BE GOING TO THE POINT WHERE WE'RE GONNA HAVE-- WAR FOR HIRE. AND THE REST OF US-- AS OUR PATRIOTIC DUTY-- WILL BE TOLD TO GO SHOP. WELL WHAT ABOUT THE ARGUMENT THAT'S BOUND TO BE PUT FORWARD BY SOME PEOPLE; NOT CONFINED TO THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT. THAT THERE OUGHTA BE SECRETS ABOUT THIS. THAT OUR ENEMIES AND POTENTIAL ENEMIES SHOULDN'T KNOW OUR FULL CAPACITY. AND THEREFORE KEEP ALL THIS OFF THE RADAR SCREEN. I THINK IN A DEMOCRACY, IF YOU HAVE AN ADMINISTRATION DECIDING, "WELL WE WON'T SAY ANYTHING, BUT WE'LL JUST SEND ANOTHER 20,000 THAT WE HIRE." OR ANOTHER 10,000 THAT WE HIRE. THEN THE SCOPE OF THE WAR IS COMPLETELY UNKNOWN TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. AND I THINK THAT IS VERY DANGEROUS FOR A DEMOCRACY THE CONSTITUTION IS BUILT WITH CHECKS AND BALANCES TO PREVENT GETTING INTO FOREIGN WARS WITHOUT A CAREFUL THOUGHT, AND THE WILL OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE BEHIND IT. MARINE COLONEL THOMAS HAMMES, NOW RETIRED, ARRIVED IN KUWAIT IN 2004 TO HELP TRAIN THE IRAQI ARMY. BEHIND THE FRONT LINES, HE FOUND PRIVATE CONTRACTORS A WELCOME ADDITION TO AMERICAN FORCES. THEY MAINTAINED THE BASES, THE CAMPS, THE FACILITIES, THE TRUCK DRIVERS. MUCH BETTER TO HAVE 40 YEAR OLD TRUCK DRIVERS WHO'VE BEEN PUSHIN' TRUCKS FOR 20 YEARS DRIVING AROUND THE MIDDLE EAST. RATHER THEN OUR 18 YEAR OLD TRUCK DRIVERS. WHO IT'S THEIR FIRST TIME OUT ON-- IN THIS AREA. DO YOU THINK MOST AMERICANS KNOW ABOUT THIS BUSINESS OF CONTRACTING OUT PART OF OUR WAR EFFORT? I THINK MOST AMERICANS DON'T KNOW AND I THINK ONE OF THE REASONS THEY DON'T IS CONTRACTORS ARE TREATED ALMOST LIKE THEY'RE NOT AMERICANS. EVERYBODY'S "SUPPORT THE TROOPS. SUPPORT THE TROOPS." THE CONTRACTORS ARE GOING THROUGH THE SAME THING; GETTING SHOT UP AND BEING WOUNDED. BUT NOBODY'S SAYING, "SUPPORT THE CONTRACTORS. SUPPORT THE CONTRACTOR." WELL WHY DID THE ADMINISTRATION DECIDE TO OUTSOURCE AS MUCH AS IT DID TO THESE CONTRACTORS? I THINK IT WAS AN EFFORT TO SAVE U.S. FORCES. TO CONVINCE PEOPLE THAT WE COULD GO IN LIGHT, NOT STAY VERY LONG, NOT GET BOGGED DOWN. AND-- TURN IT OVER TO CONTRACTS. WHAT WORRIED HAMMES WAS THE DEPLOYMENT OF CONTRACTORS OFTEN UNARMED INTO BATTLE ZONES. HAMMES: I GET VERY CONCERNED ANYTIME YOU CROSS INTO AN AREA OF ACTUAL HOSTILITY. SO I WAS GONNA ASK YOU TO MAKE A LIST OF THOSE AREAS WHERE YOU THINK IT'S INAPPROPRIATE TO USE CONTRACTORS. ESSENTIALLY ANYWHERE THEY'RE ARMED. ANY PLACE THAT THE THREAT IS REALLY SIGNIFICANT. AND, OF COURSE, THAT WOULD INCLUDE FOR CONVOY OPERATION IN PLACES-- LIKE WE'RE SEEING IN IRAQ TODAY. FROM THE FIRST DAYS OF THE WAR, THOSE CONVOYS SOME STRETCHING FOR MILES DOWN IRAQI HIGHWAYS WERE OFTEN RUN BY CIVILIANS WITH LIMITED MILITARY ESCORTS. WHEN JOHN WOODSON STARTED DRIVING IN IRAQ HE THOUGHT THE FIGHTING WAS OVER. AT THAT PARTICULAR TIME IN '04 WHEN I DID GO, GEORGE BUSH HAD SAID THE MISSION WAS COMPLETED THERE. AND THAT THINGS HAD BEEN CALMED DOWN AND THAT YOU KNOW, THE US MILITARY WOULD BE THERE PROTECTING THE CIVILIAN WORKERS AS WHAT I WAS. SO I YOU KNOW, READILY WENT. CINDY MORGAN WENT, TOO. SIGNING UP TO DRIVE TRUCKS IN SEPTEMBER 2003. AT THE TIME I WAS TRYING TO GET AWAY FROM AN ABUSIVE HUSBAND, EX-HUSBAND THAT I KEPT RUNNING INTO. A SINGLE MOTHER OF THREE FROM TENNESSEE MORGAN WAS BARELY MAKING ENDS MEET WHEN SHE FOUND OUT SHE COULD MAKE $80-THOUSAND DOLLARS A YEAR TAX-FREE. WORKING AS A TRUCK DRIVER FOR K-B-R. SHE DID THREE TOURS OVER THREE YEARS. ONCE WHILE HER OLDEST SON KENNY WAS SERVING AS AN ARMY SPECIALIST. I WENT TO SUPPORT THE TROOPS AND MY SON BEING A SOLDIER TO SUPPORT HIM. YOU MENTALLY TRAIN YOURSELF "IF THIS HAPPENS, DO THIS. IF THIS HAPPENS, DO THIS. IF THIS HAPPENS, DO THAT." SAY AND YOU GO OVER IT SO MANY TIMES IN YOUR HEAD. SO THAT WHEN THAT STUFF HAPPENS. THAT ADRENALINE HITS THAT SYSTEM (CLAP) LIKE A FRICKING BRICK WALL-- LATE ONE NIGHT ON A TRIP BACK FROM DELIVERING ICE TO U.S. TROOPS MORGAN TURNED ON HER VIDEO CAMERA MOMENTS AFTER AN ATTEMPTED AMBUSH OF HER CONVOY JUST OUTSIDE BAGHDAD. NOBODY'S HIT, RIGHT -NEGATIVE IT'S ALL RIGHT. IT'S OK. IT'S ALL RIGHT EVERYBODY MOVE TO THE RIGHT, EYEBALLS EVERYBODY.

IN THE WAR'S FIRST YEAR PRIVATE CONTRACTORS WERE RIGHT THERE WITH THE TROOPS AND CASUALTIES AND INJURIES WERE LOW.

BUT AS THE FIRST ANNIVERSARY OF THE INVASION APPROACHED ATTACKS ON BOTH U.S. TROOPS AND CONTRACTORS INCREASED.

WHEN SIX CONTRACTORS WERE KILLED DRIVING A SUPPLY CONVOY ON THE ROAD TO BAGHDAD'S AIRPORT ON APRIL 9, 2004, AMERICANS GOT A NEW PICTURE OF WHAT WAS TO COME.

ATTACKS ON CONVOYS STEADILY INCREASED THROUGHOUT 2004 AND 2005. THEN IN SEPTEMBER 2005 A K-B-R CONVOY DROVE INTO AN AMBUSH WHEN IT TOOK A WRONG TURN.

I FIGURED WE WERE ALL GONNA BE KILLED. THEY STARTED, YOU KNOW, JUST BOMBARDING US WITH ROCKS. AND YOU COULD SEE THERE WAS A TRENCH THAT WAS DUG ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE ROAD. AND I'M THINKING, THIS IS GONNA BE BAD. ART FAUST WAS UNARMED- ALONG WITH ALL OF HIS FELLOW CIVILIAN DRIVERS. THEY COULD ONLY WAIT AND WATCH

" GOD DAMN!

ONE OF THE SURVIVORS--PRESTON WHEELER-- VIDEOTAPED THE EXECUTION OF A DRIVER IN A TRUCK AHEAD OF HIM. IN THE END THREE K-B-R EMPLOYEES WERE KILLED.

THEY JUST KILLED HIM. OH JESUS.

THEY JUST KILLED HIM. OH MY GOD

THERE WAS THREE OF US THAT WERE KILLED AND THREE OF US THAT WERE CRITICALLY INJURED.

AND WE HAD TO SIT THERE FOR 20 MINUTES TAKING ON SMALL ARMS FIRE NOT MOVING, JUST SITTING THERE.

EACH YEAR ACROSS IRAQ CONTRACTORS CONTINUE TO DO THE SAME DANGEROUS WORK. AT LEAST 60 COMPANIES ARE NOW EMPLOYING CIVILIAN WORKERS. THE BIGGEST IS STILL K-B-R WITH AN $18.5 BILLION DOLLAR CONTRACT TO PROVIDE FOOD, LODGING AND SUPPLIES FOR THE TROOPS AND TO HELP REBUILD IRAQ'S INFRASTRUCTURE. WHILE CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES ARE STILL DEMANDING ANSWERS ABOUT THE HIRING, COSTS AND DEPLOYMENT OF SO MANY CIVILIAN CONTRACTORS, THEY GET FEW ANSWERS. BUT DO THE MATH. IF YOU ADD THE 770 CIVILIAN WORKERS KNOWN TO HAVE DIED IN IRAQ TO THE MORE THAN 3300 U.S. MILITARY TROOPS LOST, THE AMERICAN DEATH TOLD IN IRAQ ALONE IS ACTUALLY 25% HIGHER THAN THE AMERICAN PUBLIC HAS BEEN TOLD. WHEN AN AMERICAN SOLDIER IS KILLED OVERSEAS, IT'S REPORTED ON ALL THE MEDIA NETWORKS. ALL THE MAJOR NEWSPAPERS CARRY A DAILY COUNT. MOST AMERICANS KNOW-- WITHIN A COUPLE PEOPLE-- HOW MANY AMERICAN SOLDIERS, AND MARINES, SAILORS, AND AIRMEN HAVE BEEN KILLED IN IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN. PEOPLE DON'T HAVE A GUESS HOW MANY CONTRACTORS. THOSE ARE STILL AMERICAN CITIZENS. THOSE ARE AMERICANS WHO VOLUNTEERED TO DO A JOB. GONE OVERSEAS, AND BEEN KILLED FOR IT. AND THERE'S ABSOLUTELY NO VISIBILITY ON IT. COMING UP NEXT WHEN PRIVATE CITIZENS COME HOME FROM WAR. THE CIVILIAN MEN AND WOMEN STRUGGLE WITH THE SAME WOUNDS, PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL AS THE MILITARY TROOPS. BUT WITH LITTLE SUPPORT. AND EVEN LESS RECOGNITION.

RETIRED ARMY SERGEANT FIRST CLASS SAM WALKER WORKS WITH " AT-RISK" TEENS AT A YOUTH PROGRAM IN GEORGIA. "I USED TO DRIVE A CHEVROLET" (TROOPS REPEAT) THREE AND A HALF YEARS AGO WHEN HE WAS GETTING READY TO LEAVE THE ARMY AFTER 24 YEARS HE HEARD ABOUT A GOOD PAYING JOB--- I WENT TO THE JOB FAIR. THEY TOLD ME TO FILL OUT A RESUME. I FILLED OUT A RESUME, AND I SENT IT TO KBR. AND ABOUT A WEEK LATER, I HAD A PHONE CALL SAYING THAT THEY WANTED TO MAKE ME A JOB OFFER. THEY MADE ME A JOB OFFER, AND I ACCEPTED. WALKER WENT TO IRAQ TO WORK FOR KELLOGG, BROWN AND ROOT KNOWN AS K-B-R, THEN STILL A HALLIBURTON SUBSIDIARY, IN 2003. I WENT TO IRAQ, BECAUSE THE MONEY SOUNDED GOOD AND I WANTED TO, YOU KNOW, BUY A HOUSE, BUY A NEW CAR AND ALSO TO CONTINUE TO SERVE MY COUNTRY IN A CERTAIN WAY, YOU KNOW, BY WORKING WITH THE SOLDIERS. K-B-R HAD BILLIONS OF DOLLARS WORTH OF CONTRACTS FOR WORK ALL OVER IRAQ INCLUDING CONSTRUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF TWO RECREATION CENTERS FOR OFF-DUTY TROOPS. SAM WALKER WAS HIRED TO COORDINATE ACTIVITIES AT ONE OF THOSE CENTERS. THEY WANTED TO HIRE ME AS A MWR COORDINATOR AN MWR COORDINATOR'S RESPONSIBILITY IS MORALE, WELFARE AND RECREATION FOR THE SOLDIERS. HE THOUGHT THE JOB WAS FAR FROM THE FRONT LINES. UNTIL DECEMBER 21, 2004 THAT DAY WALKER WENT TO A K-B-R RUN DINING HALL IN MOSUL. HE WAS ABOUT TO EAT LUNCH WITH A GROUP OF CONTRACTORS WHEN A SUICIDE BOMBER ATTACKED. THERE'S A BIG FLASH, A BIG BRIGHT LIGHT, A FLASH OF LIGHT JUST COMIN' TOWARD AND I CAN FEEL THE HEAT. NEXT THING I KNEW WHEN I WAKE UP, I'M LAYIN' ON THE FLOOR SCREAMIN' AND THERE'S, YOU KNOW, BLOOD AND GUTS AND BODY PARTS ALL OVER THE PLACE, TWENTY AMERICANS DIED FIFTY WERE SOLDIERS AND FIVE CIVILIANS. MORE THAN 60 PEOPLE WERE INJURED. IT WAS THE DEADLIEST SINGLE INCIDENT FOR US TROOPS SINCE THE WAR BEGAN. SAM WALKER HAD BEEN JUST A FEW STEPS AWAY FROM DEATH. WELL, THE CLOTHES THAT I WAS WEARIN', THEY WAS BURNT FROM THE HEAT FROM THE FLAME. AND THERE WAS A LOT OF COPPER WIRE THAT WAS COMIN' THAT WAS IN MY CLOTHES, BECAUSE THEY WERE SAYIN' THAT HOW DID I GET ALL THIS COPPER WIRE. I WAS SO CLOSE TO THE BOMBER THAT THE PEOPLE THAT WAS RIGHT BEHIND ME AND NEXT TO ME, THEY WAS ALL KILLED, YOU KNOW. AND I WAS SO CLOSE TO THE BOMBER THAT THE COPPER WIRE THAT WAS USED IN THE DETONATOR WAS STUCK INSIDE OF MY CLOTHES. WALKER WENT HOME TO GEORGIA TO RECOVER FROM SEVERE HEAD AND BACK INJURIES AND RESIGNED FROM KBR. I STARTED HAVING NIGHTMARES. I START SEEIN' THINGS THAT LIKE-- EXPERIENCIN' THE BOMBIN' ALL OVER AGAIN. YOU KNOW? TRYIN' TO GET THE SMELL OUT OF MY NOSE FROM SMELLIN' THE BLOOD, YOU KNOW? TRYIN' TO GET RID OF THE SCREAMS FROM HEARIN'-- THE OTHER PEOPLE. AND THEIR SCREAMING. DIAGNOSED WITH POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER -P-T-S-D --BY BOTH HIS OWN AND K-B-R'S INSURANCE COMPANY'S DOCTORS WALKER WAS STUNNED WHEN MEDICAL BENEFITS WERE DENIED. THE INSURANCE COMPANY WOULDN'T PAY FOR ANY TREATMENT FOR PTSD. WALKER HIRED ATTORNEY GARY PITTS WHO REPRESENTED SOLDIERS WITH PTSD WHO FOUGHT IN THE FIRST GULF WAR. THE MILITARY TAKES THIS STUFF SERIOUSLY. THEY BRIEF EVERYBODY COMING OUT OF THE THEATER ON WHAT THE SYMPTOMS ARE. AND IF YOU START HAVING THIS, GO GET SOME HELP. AND THEY CHECK BACK UP ON 'EM THREE OR FOUR MONTHS AFTER THEY'VE LEFT THE WAR ZONE TO SEE HOW THEY'RE DOING. AND-- THE MILITARY HEALTHCARE SYSTEM AND THE V.A. ARE ALL SET UP TO TAKE CARE OF-- OF PTSD CASES. ANYWAY, ALL THE CIVILIAN CONTRACTORS DON'T HAVE THIS. MORE THAN A YEAR AFTER THE CLAIM WAS DENIED PITTS WON WALKER'S CASE. BUT HE CONTINUES TO HEAR FROM DOZENS OF PRIVATE CONTRACTORS RETURNING FROM IRAQ. IT PUTS THE INJURED PERSON, OR THE PERSON WITH THESE STRESS SYMPTOMS COMING OUT OF THE WAR ZONE. THAT WENT OVER THERE AND PUT THEIR LIFE AT RISK TO SUPPORT THE TROOPS. THEY'VE GONE THROUGH HELL. THEY COME BACK HERE, AND THEY'VE GOTTA GO THROUGH THIS LITIGATION SYSTEM. K-B-R'S INSURANCE COMPANY A-I-G WOULD NOT COMMENT ON SAM WALKER'S CASE. BUT SAID IN A STATEMENT THAT " 90 PERCENT OF ALL CONTRACTORS CLAIMS HAVE BEEN PAID WITHOUT DISPUTE" . AT THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WHERE WORKERS' COMPENSATION CASES FROM OVERSEAS ARE HANDLED, CLAIMS HAVE SKYROCKETED FROM 366 BEFORE THE WAR STARTED IN 2002 TO 3581 IN 2006. THE NUMBERS ARE EVIDENCE THAT CIVILIANS ARE IN BATTLE ZONES MORE AND MORE OFTEN. BUT UNLIKE THE TROOPS THEY SUPPORT, CONTRACTORS HAVE FAR FEWER RESOURCES TO TURN TO WHEN THEY COME HOME. AS AN AMERICAN, YOU'RE SUPPOSED TO BE DEBRIEFED OR SOMETHING. I CAME HOME RIGHT TO MY HOUSE. ROB ROWE WAS SHOT IN THE KNEE SIX MONTHS INTO HIS TOUR AS A TRUCK DRIVER IN IRAQ. WE'RE RIGHT IN THE MIDDLE OF IT. ONE SIDE IS SHOOTING AT US TO RAPPEL THE ATTACKERS, THE ATTACKERS ARE SHOOTING AT THEM AND WE'RE RIGHT IN THE MIDDLE OF IT. IN FEBRUARY ROWE MET UP WITH HALF A DOZEN OTHER CONTRACTORS HOME FROM IRAQ AT A VFW POST IN KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE. ALL OF THEM LOOKING FOR ANSWERS AND SUPPORT. PEOPLE COMIN' HOME WITH-- DEVASTATING INJURIES. CAUSED BY DIRECT HOSTILE ACTION DEBILITATING INJURIES. THEY CAN'T WORK. THEY'RE NOT GETTING NO COMPENSATION. THEY DON'T PAY BILLS. THEY'RE LOSING THEIR HOMES. THEY'RE HAVING MARITAL PROBLEMS. THEY'RE GOIN' THROUGH ALL KINDS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS. THEY'RE LOST, ABANDONED. THE COMPANY'S NOT HELPIN' THEM. JANA CROWDER BROUGHT THE GROUP TOGETHER THROUGH A WEBSITE SHE FOUNDED IN MAY 2004 WHEN HER HUSBAND LEFT TO WORK AS A CONTRACT ENGINEER IN IRAQ. WHEN I FIRST STARTED, IT WAS JUST YOU KNOW, PUTTING UP THE SUPPORT RIBBONS. I MADE A SUPPORT, MAGNETIC RIBBONS, LIKE I HAVE ON MY SHIRT. AND I STARTED SELLING THOSE ON MY WEBSITE JUST TO SPREAD THE WORD THAT AMERICAN CONTRACTORS ARE OVER THERE IN IRAQ, YOU KNOW, FIGHTING ALONGSIDE OUR SOLDIERS. AND FROM THERE, I'VE GOTTEN HERE. I DON'T EVEN KNOW HOW TO EXPLAIN IT. IT WAS LIKE A WHIRLWIND. THE PHONE CALLS STARTED COMING IN, THE E- MAILS STARTED COMING IN. I OPENED UP A SUPPORT GROUP. LINKED THROUGH THE WEBSITE: AMERICAN CONTRACTORS IN IRAQ.COM THE MEETING IN KNOXVILLE WAS A CHANCE TO FIND A WAY TO COME HOME. I'D DREAM-- A LOT-- A LOT ABOUT KILLIN'. I MEAN, HONESTLY, I DO. AND I'VE NEVER BEEN THAT WAY. I DON'T SLEEP AT NIGHT, NO MORE. I-- TAKE PILLS TO SLEEP AT NIGHT, TO BE HONEST WITH YA. I DON'T-- WON'T TAKE 'EM EVERY NIGHT. SO, SOME NIGHTS I TAKE PILLS. SOME NIGHTS I STAY AWAKE, ALL NIGHT. THE ONE THING THAT STICKS OUT TO MIND IS HAVING A WAKING FLASHBACK OF DRIVING IN MY LITTLE CAR DOWN THE ROAD AND ALL OF THE SUDDEN I HEAR GLASS BREAKING AND I COULD SWEAR THAT I GOT HIT UPSIDE THE HEAD AGAIN. YOU GO INTO A WAR ZONE. IT'S WAR. PEOPLE ARE GONNA DIE. PEOPLE ARE GONNA GET HURT. I ENCOUNTERED A BETTER-- GREATER WAR, WHEN I CAME HOME, THAN THE ONE I LEFT BEHIND.

THEY'RE TRUCK DRIVERS, THEY'RE POLICE OFFICERS AND THEY GO OVER THERE WITH A LIVELIHOOD. THEY WANT TO USE OUR LIVELIHOOD TO GO OVER THERE AND HELP THE MILITARY. THEY GET OVER THERE AND THEY GET BROKE, THEY COME HOME AND THEY'VE LOST THEIR LIVELIHOOD, THEY'VE LOST THEIR INTEGRITY. THEY'VE LOST THEIR FAMILIES. THEIR CHILDREN. THERE IS NOTHING FOR THE FAMILIES. THERE IS NOTHING TO TEACH THE WIVES OR CHILDREN HOW TO COPE WITH DAD. WHY IS DAD SCREAMING? WHY IS DAD-- YOU KNOW, HE'S SLEEPING ON THE COUCH AND THE NEXT MINUTE, HE'S ON THE FLOOR, DODGING BULLETS. AND THE KIDS ARE JUST LIKE, WHAT'S WRONG WITH DAD? IT'S JUST NOT RIGHT. IT DOES NOT LET-- THIS IS NOT THE AMERICAN WAY. IT'S JUST NOT.

IT'S BEEN MORE THAN 30 YEARS SINCE THE GREAT BASEBALL SLUGGER HANK AARON HIT HIS 755TH AND FINAL HOME RUN. IT'S A MAJOR LEAGUE RECORD, SURPASSING THE LEGENDARY BABE RUTH. AND AARON -WHO IS AFRICAN- AMERICAN - ENDURED RACIAL TAUNTS AND EVEN DEATH THREATS AS HE ASCENDED THE RECORD LIST. NOW AARON'S MARK WILL LIKELY FALL THIS SEASON TO ANOTHER AFRICAN-AMERICAN SLUGGER, BARRY BONDS - ALBEIT UNDER THE CLOUD OF A WIDER STEROID SCANDAL IN BASEBALL. NEVERTHELESS, THE SIGHT OF TWO BLACK STARS ATOP THE RECORD BOOKS IS A TRIBUTE TO THE LEGACY OF JACKIE ROBINSON, WHO DE-SEGREGATED MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL 60 YEARS AGO. YET IF YOU LOOK MORE CLOSELY AT AMERICA'S PASTIME, YOU'LL SEE THAT ONE GROUP OF AMERICANS - AFRICAN AMERICANS - ARE LEAVING IT BEHIND.

IT'S A SUN-DRENCHED PICTURE OF THE AMERICAN PASTIME. THREE GENERATIONS OF THE GREENE FAMILY, PLAYING CATCH ON A SOUTHERN-CALIFORNIA FIELD. . I WANNA BE A PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL PLAYER. SEVEN YEAR OLD HUNTER GREENE HAS ALL THE RIGHT GEAR. I HAVE A BAT. I HAVE MY OTHER BAT. IT MAKES ME HIT BETTER. I HAVE MY DAD'S GLOVE. AND HIS BIGGEST FANS BY HIS SIDE. GRAMPS: I'VE FLOWN DOWN HERE TWICE - JUST TO SEE MY GRANDSON PLAY BASEBALL. DAD: I LIVE THROUGH HIM. AND BEING ABLE TO WATCH HIM AND GO OUT AND THROW THE BALL AND CATCH THE BALL AND HIT THE BALL AND SOMETHING THAT I CAN ACTUALLY WITH HIM SUCH AS CATCHING. I THINK THAT'S WHERE THE LOVE BETWEEN US AND ACTUALLY PLAYING HAS BEEN NURTURED AND DEVELOPED.

ACROSS THE COUNTRY IN NEW YORK; THE FIRST DAY OF HARLEM LITTLE LEAGUE IS CAUSE ENOUGH FOR A PARADE.

WE'RE MORE CONCERNED WITH BUILDING BIG LEAGUE CITIZENS THAN WE ARE ABOUT BUILDING YOU KNOW PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES. DWIGHT RAIFORD STARTED THE LEAGUE 19 YEARS AGO FOR HIS SEVEN YEAR OLD SON AND HE THINKS PLAYING BASEBALL TEACHES IMPORTANT LESSONS TO YOUNG BOYS AND GIRLS THAT GO FAR BEYOND THE FIELD. I DON'T CARE HOW GOOD YOU ARE IN BASEBALL-- YOU CAN'T PLAY IT BY YOURSELF. YOU CAN'T WIN BY YOURSELF. YOU HAVE TO RELY ON OTHER PEOPLE. YOU HAVE TO-- YOU KNOW, HAVE TO LEARN THAT, IF OUR TEAM'S GONNA WIN, WE'VE GOT TO HELP THE WEAKEST PLAYER ON OUR TEAM TO SUCCEED, OKAY? AND I THINK THAT'S WHAT BASEBALL TEACHES.

BUT IN RECENT YEARS, BASEBALL SEEMS TO BE LEAVING A LARGE GROUP OF AMERICANS BEHIND. THE EAGER FACES OF THE BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE HARLEM LITTLE LEAGUE, ARE THE EXCEPTION NOT THE RULE. INTEREST IN AMERICA'S PASS TIME IS WANING AMONGST AFRICAN AMERICANS AND MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL IS TAKING NOTICE. CERTAINLY MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL IS INCREDIBLY DIVERSE WITH PEOPLE OF COLOR, BUT THOSE PLAYERS, MORE OFTEN THAN NOT, ARE FROM LATIN AMERICA AND ASIA. THE NUMBERS OF BLACK AMERICANS PLAYING IN THE MAJOR LEAGUES HAS DECLINED STEADILY SINCE ITS PEAK IN THE 70'S. AS A RESULT, INTEREST FROM THE AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY HAS WANED. FOR SOME OBSERVERS, THAT REVELATION ISN'T ALL THAT SHOCKING, GIVEN BASEBALL'S HISTORY. BASEBALL HAS THIS KIND OF INTERESTING PAST. IT'S OUR OLDEST PROFESSIONAL SPORT. TEAM SPORT. AND FOR A VERY LONG TIME IT WAS A SEGREGATED SPORT. BUT IT'S A SPORT THAT LIKES TO SELL ITSELF WITH ITS HISTORY. AND WITH ITS NOSTALGIA. DR. GERALD EARLY IS A NOTED AUTHOR AND PROFESSOR AT WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY IN ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI " FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS, THERE ISN'T A LOT OF GREAT NOSTALGIA ABOUT JOE DIMAGGIO AND TED WILLIAMS AND BABE RUTH. I MEAN, AS GREAT AS THEY ARE, WHAT THEY REMIND AFRICAN AMERICANS OF IS THAT THIS WAS AN ALL-WHITE GAME. AND THEN IT DOESN'T BECOME A REALLY AMERICAN GAME FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS UNTIL JACKIE ROBINSON COMES IN. ROBINSON BECAME A LITMUS TEST FOR RACE RELATIONS IN THIS COUNTRY. ONE THAT WAS STILL HEAVILY SEGREGATED. HE CHANGED THAT, AT LEAST ON THE PLAYING FIELD. JUST THINK ABOUT THE NUMBER OF PLAYERS WHO CAME IN. AFTER HIM SUCH AS AARON AND MAYS. WHO WOUND UP IN THE HALL OF FAME. FRANK ROBINSON AND PEOPLE OF THIS SORT. WHO WOUND UP IN THE HALL OF FAME. THIS IS AN EXTRAORDINARY CLASS OF ATHLETES WHO CAME IN. INTEREST WAS HIGH. INTEREST COULD REMAIN HIGH. INTEREST KIND OF REACHED A CRESCENDO AT A CERTAIN POINT BACK IN THE 1970S THE AFRICAN- AMERICAN PRESENCE IN BASEBALL AS PLAYERS REACHED IT'S PEAK IT WAS CLOSE TO MAYBE 25 PERCENT. THAT WAS A VERY, VERY BIG NUMBER. THEY WERE WAY OVERREPRESENTED. DR. EARLY SAYS, THERE WAS A GROWING CONCERN THAT IF TOO MANY BLACKS WERE PLAYING THE GAME, WHITES WOULD BE LESS INTERESTED IN IT. AND, HE SAYS, IT DIDN'T HELP WHEN STADIUMS AND SOMETIMES EVEN TEAMS RELOCATED. AT ONE TIME CONNIE MACK STADIUM WAS LOCATED IN NORTH PHILADELPHIA. AND THAT COMMUNITY BEGAN TO BECOME MOSTLY AFRICAN AMERICAN. SO THE STADIUM WAS MOVED IN ABOUT 1970 TO AN AREA OF THE CITY WHICH WAS, YOU KNOW. EXCLUSIVELY WHITE. I MEAN, YOU DO THINGS LIKE THAT AND THAT KIND OF GIVES A SIGNAL TO PEOPLE. THAT-- WE DON'T WANT THIS PARTICULAR-- CLIENTELE. WE DON'T WANT THIS FAN BASE. IN RECENT YEARS, BASEBALL ATTENDANCE RECORDS ARE AT ALL TIME HIGHS. BUT THE PERCENTAGE OF BLACKS IN ATTENDANCE IS DWINDLING RAPIDLY. TALENTED AFRICAN-AMERICAN ATHLETES AND THEIR FANS HAVE MOVED TO OTHER SPORTS, AND THOSE SPORTS ARE BOOMING. MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL IS SCRAMBLING, TRYING TO BRING SOME OF THEM BACK. BASEBALL HAS NOW TO COMPETE WITH BASKETBALL AND FOOTBALL FOR ATHLETES AND A LOT OF THE AFRICAN AMERICAN ATHLETES WHICH PREDOMINATE THOSE TWO SPORTS HAVE BEEN TAKEN FROM US.

JIMMIE LEE SOLOMON IS EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT OF BASEBALL OPERATIONS FOR MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL. HE AND JACKIE ROBINSON'S DAUGHTER SHARON, WHO IS THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMING CONSULTING ARE WORKING WITH THE LEAGUE TO HELP BRING IN MORE URBAN PLAYERS. . BUT AS SOLOMON POINTS OUT, THEY HAVE HIGH HURDLES TO OVERCOME. BASKETBALL GOT VERY LUCKY. THEY GOT THE MOST RECOGNIZABLE ATHLETE ON THE FACE OF THE PLANET IN MICHAEL JORDAN. AND IT BECAME A COOL SPORT IN URBAN AMERICA. THE SHOE COMPANIES LIKE NIKE - DECIDED THAT THEY COULD MARKET BASKETBALL SHOES TO MORE THAN JUST BASKETBALL PLAYERS. THEY COULD MARKET THEM TO ALL KIDS BECAUSE KIDS COULD WEAR SNEAKERS TO SCHOOL.

BASEBALL GREAT DAVE WINFIELD, WHO RECENTLY PUBLISHED A BOOK ON THE TOPIC, SAYS BASEBALL NEVER TOOK THE INITIATIVE TO SELL THE GAME TO ITS FANS THE WAY OTHER SPORTS HAVE. WHEN IT COMES TO MARKETING THE SPORT AND ITS PLAYERS AND DOING IT NATIONALLY, IT'S WHAT WE HAVEN'T DONE SO THAT WE HAVE TO DO AND THOSE ARE STRIDES AND STEPS THAT HAVEN'T BEEN TAKEN YET. WINFIELD SAYS ONCE YOU'RE IN THE GAME, IT SELLS ITSELF. AND THAT PLAYERS ARE MISSING OUT ON LONG TIME REWARDS THAT OTHER SPORTS TEAMS MIGHT NOT BE PROVIDING. WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT LONGEVITY, PAY, PROTECTION, LONG TERM HEALTH, BENEFITS, BASEBALL HAS THAT. BASEBALL IS THE BEST JOB IN AMERICA, THE PRESIDENT WISHES HE COULD PLAY RIGHT NOW, IT'S THAT GOOD. SOLOMON POINTS TO ACCESS OF THE GAME. WITH INDOOR GYMS AND QUICK PICK-UP GAMES, HE SAYS ATHLETES WILL BE LESS LIKELY TO CHOOSE THE DIAMONDS OVER THE COURTS. IF YOU CAN HAVE ONE BASKETBALL IN A NEIGHBORHOOD, THE ENTIRE NEIGHBORHOOD CAN PLAY. IT'S NOT THE WAY YOU'RE GOING TO UNDERSTAND WHY BLACK PEOPLE DON'T PLAY BASEBALL. DR. EARLY SIMPLY DOESN'T BUY THE ACCESS THEORY. THE POINT I ALWAYS MAKE TO PEOPLE ALL THE TIME IS THAT IN 1920. WHEN THE AFRICAN AMERICANS FORMED PROFESSIONAL LEAGUES. THEY HAD FAR LESS ACCESS TO GREEN SPACE THEN THAN THEY DO NOW. THEY WERE SUFFERING UNDER TREMENDOUS-- RACISM IN THE COUNTRY THEN. THEY WERE A LOT POORER THEN. THEY HAD FEWER RE-- RESOURCES THEN. BUT THEY FORMED PROFESSIONAL LEAGUES. IF THEY WANTED TO DO IT, THEY WOULD DO IT NEGRO LEAGUE BASEBALL THRIVED IN MAJOR URBAN AREAS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. THESE TEAMS WERE THE PRIDE AND JOY IN BLACK COMMUNITIES AND A SOURCE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REVENUE. IRONICALLY, EARLY SAYS, INTEGRATION TOOK THAT AWAY. WHEN THEY HAD BASEBALL IN THEIR OWN COMMUNITIES WERE MORE THAN JUST THE PLAYERS. THEY WERE ALSO THE COACHES. THEY WERE THE MANAGERS. THEY WERE THE PUBLICISTS. THEY HAD NEWSPAPER PEOPLE WHO WROTE ABOUT IT FOR BLACK NEWSPAPERS. AND BY AND LARGE. NOT EXCLUSIVELY. BUT BY AND LARGE THEY WERE ALSO THE OWNERS. WHEN INTEGRATION HAPPENED, WHAT HAPPENED WAS THE PLAYERS WENT OVER. BUT NONE OF THE REST OF THOSE PEOPLE DID. AND-- THERE HAS BEEN INSUFFICIENT STUDY ABOUT THE AFFECT OF THAT ON HOW AFRICAN AMERICAN PEOPLE FELT OVER-- OVER A PERIOD OF TIME ABOUT THE LOSS OF THIS PARTICULAR INSTITUTION IN THEIR COMMUNITIES. WHICH FOR PROFESSOR EARLY, IS WHY MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL EXECUTIVES SHOULD NOT FOCUS AS MUCH ON EXPANDING THE NUMBER OF AFRICAN AMERICANS ON THE FIELD AS THEY SHOULD ON GAINING ENTHUSIASM FOR THE GAME. AFRICAN AMERICANS WOULD GO TO BASEBALL GAMES TODAY IF THAT WAS SOMETHING THAT THEY WANTED TO DO. THEY NEED TO FIND OUT WHY BECAUSE THIS IS AN IMPORTANT CONSTITUENCY THEY OUGHT TO HAVE. WHAT BASEBALL OUGHT TO DO FIRST OF ALL, I THINK, IS START OUT BY ASKING PEOPLE LIKE ME. WHO SPEND THEIR MONEY GOING TO BASEBALL GAMES. UNDERSTAND WHAT DEMOGRAPHIC WE ARE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS. AND SAY, WHY DO YOU LOVE THE GAME? WINFIELD COULDN'T AGREE MORE, AND SAYS THEY ARE MISSING OUT ON JUST MORE THAN AN IMPORTANT FAN BASE. THE SPORT IS HEALTHY, AND IT MAKES MONEY, WE'RE DOING WELL INTERNATIONALLY BUT DOMESTICALLY WHEN YOU HAVE A MINORITY GROUP WITH THE LARGEST BUYING POWER OVER 700 BILLION IN THIS COUNTRY AND YOU'VE LOST 6% IN THE LAST 10 YEARS AND WE'RE HAVING RECORD BREAKING NUMBERS, ANYONE WOULD LOOK AT THAT, THAT'S HOW I LOOKED AT IT FROM A BUSINESS STANDPOINT. BUT, HE ADDS, THE SOLUTION DOESN'T JUST LIE WITH MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL. YOU CAN BUILD A THOUSAND FIELDS AND SAY HERE THEY ARE AND THEY WOULD JUST GO TO WASTE BECAUSE YOU CAN'T GIVE SOMEBODY SOMETHING THEY'RE NOT READY FOR OR COMMITTED TO.

ON THIS 60TH ANNIVERSARY OF BASEBALL'S INTEGRATION, NO ONE SEEMS TO KNOW WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE SPORT. AS PLAYERS ACROSS THE COUNTRY DONNED #42 IN HONOR OF JACKIE ROBINSON MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL IS HOPING THAT THEY CAN FIND ANSWERS BEFORE AFRICAN AMERICAN'S FEEL LOCKED OUT OF THE GAME.

A LOT OF OUR YOUNG KIDS TODAY DO NOT KNOW ABOUT JACKIE ROBINSON NOR HIS LEGACY IT'S INCUMBENT UPON BASEBALL TO MAKE SURE THAT THEY DON'T FORGET. MAKE SURE THAT WE CAN SHOW THAT YOUNG KIDS , BLACK KIDS URBAN KIDS ARE IMPORT TO THE SPORT, WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT WE KEEP JACKIE'S SPIRIT ALIVE BY DOING THINGS LIKE THIS.

AND, AT LEAST IN HARLEM, THAT SPIRIT SEEMS TO BE ALIVE AND WELL. IT'S A TRIBUTE, LEAGUE FOUNDER DWIGHT RAIFORD SAYS, TO A LEGEND WHO PLAYED ONLY A FEW MILES AWAY. JACKIE ROBINSON, WOW. I MEAN, HE'S BIGGER THAN LIFE, BIGGER THAN LIFE FOR ME AND JUST BEEN AN INSPIRATION TO SO MANY PEOPLE. SO WE'VE JUST VERY VERY PLEASED TO BE ABLE TO HAVE CHILDREN PLAY THE GAME THAT JACKIE ROBINSON PLAYED. AND NOT ONLY JACKIE ROBINSON, BUT SATCHEL PAIGE AND - AND ALL OF THE GREAT YOU KNOW, BUCK O'NEAL AND JOSH GIBSON. WE'RE TRYING TO BRING ALL OF THAT HISTORY BACK TO OUR CHILDREN SO THAT THEY, YOU KNOW, KNOW FROM WHENCE THEY CAME.

NEGRO LEAGUE VETERANS ARE GRAND MARSHALS IN THE OPENING DAY PARADE. AND A LEAGUE THAT STARTED WITH 8 TEAMS AND 129 KIDS NOW HAS 600 BOYS AND GIRLS, 40 TEAMS AND A WAITING LIST.

I AM BOTHERED BY THE DIMINISHING NUMBERS OF AFRICAN-AMERICANS IN THE MAJOR LEAGUES BECAUSE I WANT OUR CHILDREN TO PLAY THE GAME AND CHILDREN NEED HEROES, THEY NEED ROLE MODELS AND THERE ARE FEWER OF THEM, THEY'RE MAY BE FEWER DREAMS AND IF THEY'RE FEWER KIDS DREAMING ABOUT BEING BASEBALL STARS THERE MAY BE FEWER KIDS PLAYING A GREAT GAME. I HAVE MY OWN DODGER HELMET. HE CHANGED HAVING WE CAN ALL PLAY BASEBALL, DOESN'T MATTER WHAT COLOR WE ARE, WE CAN JUST STILL PLAY BASEBALL.

DID I HAVE A GOOD PRACTICE? YOU HAD A GREAT PRACTICE TODAY. I LOVE YOU. TWENTY YEARS AGO, BASEBALL HONORED JACKIE ROBINSON BY NAMING THE ROOKIE-OF-THE-YEAR AWARD AFTER HIM. AND AFRICAN AMERICAN BASEBALL GREATS FROM WILLIE MAYS AND WILLIE MCCOVEY TO EDDIE MURRAY AND ANDRE DAWSON HAVE ALL BEEN HONORED. BUT THE LAST 30 YEARS PAINTS A PROVOCATIVE PORTRAIT OF THE CHANGING FACE OF MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL. FROM 1977 TO 1990, 9 OF THE 29 ROOKIES OF THE YEAR WERE AFRICAN-AMERICANS. IN THE SIXTEEN YEARS SINCE, ONLY FOUR HAVE WON THE AWARD

LONG AFTER THE NAMES OF THE BATTLES AND GENERALS ARE FORGOTTEN WE REMEMBER WARS THROUGH THEIR IMAGES. DURING THE VIETNAM WAR, THOSE IMAGES REVERBERATE IN A STARK SYMMETRY. THERE WERE THE IMAGES FROM OVER THERE - YOUNG G.I.'S IN DENSE JUNGLE FIREFIGHTS WITH THE DETERMINED VIETCONG. AND NORTH VIETNAMESE AND THEN THERE WERE THE IMAGES FROM OVER HERE - YOUNG STUDENTS IN MASSIVE COLLEGE CAMPUS PROTESTS CLASHING WITH NATIONAL GUARDSMEN FOR THE IRAQ WAR, NOW IN ITS FIFTH YEAR, THERE ARE PLENTY OF IMAGES FROM OVER THERE - DUSTY PATROLS, THE AFTERMATH OF IEDS, SUICIDE BOMBERS IN CROWDED MARKETS. BUT WHILE THE WAR IS UNPOPULAR WITH THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, THERE HASN'T BEEN THE OUTPOURING OF PROTESTS - OVER HERE. TO FIND OUT WHY, WE ASKED SOMEONE WHO WITNESSED THE MOST VIOLENT ANTI-WAR CLASH DURING VIETNAM TO EXPLAIN WHAT HAPPENED THEN AND WHAT'S DIFFERENT NOW. TODAY WHEN PEOPLE TALK ABOUT IRAQ AND ALL THE CONTROVERSY. IN MY MIND THE CONTROVERSY IS NOTHING LIKE IT WAS IN THE VIETNAM ERA. PEOPLE, FAMILIES WERE DEEPLY DIVIDED. MY NAME'S JERRY M. LEWIS. I'M A EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY.

I'VE BEEN ON THE KENT STATE FACULTY FOR 42 YEARS. AND IN MAY OF '70, PARTICULARLY MAY 4TH I WAS A FACULTY MARSHAL.

WE WERE FACULTY WHO FELT THAT IF STUDENTS WERE PROTESTING ANYTHING WHETHER IT WAS THE UNIVERSITY ITSELF OR ISSUES OUTSIDE THE UNIVERSITY THERE SHOULD BE A FACULTY PRESENT. IF YOU WOULD, CONFLICT RESOLUTION. SOME PEOPLE HAVE DESCRIBED THIS AS A CALMING EFFECT. I LIKE TO THINK THAT WE WERE FACILITATORS OF NONVIOLENCE AND I THINK WE WERE.

AND THIS SITE OVERLOOKS THE COMMONS WHERE THIS EVENT OCCURRED, OR STARTED AT LEAST.

THERE WERE THREE BASIC GROUPS, THERE WERE THE ACTIVISTS AROUND THE BELL AND THE BELL WAS RINGING, THE NATIONAL GUARD WAS WAY OVER ON THE OTHER SIDE. THEN CLOSER, AROUND THE HILL WERE WHAT I CALL THE CHEERLEADERS, WHO WERE THE ACTIVE VERBAL SUPPORT OF THE ACTIVE CORE. AND ALL THE REST WERE OBSERVERS, ALL THE WAY AROUND, INCLUDING OVER ON THE TENNIS COURT. AND SO WE ESTIMATE ROUGHLY ABOUT 3,000 PEOPLE WERE HERE THAT DAY.

IN ' 70 THIS IS WHERE THE DEMONSTRATIONS WOULD BE HELD SO IT BEGAN RINGING QUITE EARLY ROUGHLY AROUND 11 O'CLOCK. (DING OF BELL)

THE BELL WAS RINGING CONSTANTLY AND THE STUDENTS SAID " JOIN US DR. LEWIS." AND I SAID " NO I'M A FACULTY MARSHAL TODAY." AND I WENT UP TO THE CORNER OF TAYLOR HALL AND THERE I MET MY FRIEND NORMAN DUFFY. AND THIS IS WHEN WE TALKED ABOUT TALKING WITH THE STUDENTS BUT NEVER GOT A CHANCE TO DO IT.

I HAVE A SCHOLARLY LIFE AND A TEACHING LIFE, BUT CERTAINLY WHEN I COME UP ON THE HILL AND IN THE PARKING LOT YEAH I ALWAYS FEEL BAD. YOU KNOW, I WONDER WHY THEY DIED AND I DIDN'T.

SO THAT'S WHY I TEACH IT, THAT'S WHY I CARE FOR THE SLAIN STUDENTS, AND THE WOUNDED STUDENTS TOO, SEVERAL OF THEM WHO ARE CLOSE FRIENDS. I CAN TEACH ABOUT IT AND THAT'S THE WAY I HONOR THE FOUR STUDENTS.

WELL WE WERE IN THE MIDST OF THE VIETNAM WAR. PRESIDENT NIXON IN THE '68 CAMPAIGN HAD SAID HE HAD A SECRET PLAN TO END THE WAR ALONG WITH-- MR. KISSINGER, SECRETARY OF STATE. ON APRIL 30TH 1970 PRESIDENT NIXON WENT ON THE AIR AND ANNOUNCED THAT HE HAD INVADED CAMBODIA OR NOT HE, BUT AMERICAN SOLDIERS HAD INVADED CAMBODIA. AND THIS ANNOUNCED TWO THINGS. ONE THAT THE WAR WAS NOT ENDING AND SECONDLY THAT IT WAS SPREADING. AND THIS IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE ALL THE MALES IN OUR SOCIETY OVER 18, UNLESS THEY GOT DEFERMENTS, WERE ELIGIBLE FOR THE DRAFT. AND THE DRAFT IS A FUNDAMENTAL ISSUE, WHICH OF COURSE IS DIFFERENT FROM TODAY'S IRAQ WAR. AND SO THIS BEGAN STUDENT PROTESTS NOT ONLY HERE IN KENT STATE BUT ALL OVER THE UNITED STATES.

THE NATIONAL GUARD CAME UP THE HILL THIS WAY. STUDENTS WERE AHEAD OF THEM. THERE WERE A LOT OF STUDENTS WHO WERE ALONG THE FENCE HERE.

NATIONAL GUARD WENT UP OVER THE HILL AND DOWN TO WHAT USED TO BE OUR PRACTICE FOOTBALL FIELD. AND FOR ABOUT 10 MINUTES IT BECAME WHAT WE CALL THE TENNIS MATCH. THE NATIONAL GUARD WOULD SHOOT A CANISTER UP HERE. THE STUDENTS WOULD RUN OUT, GRAB THE CANISTER OF TEAR GAS, THROW IT BACK. AND THIS WENT ON BACK AND FORTH

THE CHANTING WAS GOING ON PRIMARILY FROM HERE. THE CHEERLEADERS WERE SUPPORTING THE ACTIVE CORE. THEY WERE CHANTING, " PIGS OFF CAMPUS, PIGS OFF CAMPUS," " WE DON'T WANT - 1 -2-3-4 WE DON'T WANT YOUR F# # KING WAR." THE TRADITIONAL ANTI-WAR CHANTS THAT OCCURRED. BUT IT WAS CLEAR TO ME AND LATER I FOUND EVEN MORE DRAMATIC ONCE I DID MY RESEARCH THAT MANY OF THE STUDENTS FELT THIS WAS AN ANTI-GUARD RALLY RATHER THAN AN ANTI-WAR RALLY. AND THERE'S A REAL DIFFERENCE THERE. AND IN FACT ONE OF THE GUARD'S GENERALS TESTIFIED THAT HE WAS SURPRISED AT THE HOSTILITY TOWARDS THE GUARD.

ALL OF THE SUDDEN THE GUARD STOPPED THE TEAR GASSING AND CAME UP THE HILL REALLY FAST. THERE WERE APPROXIMATELY 71 GUARDSMAN OVER THE HILL IN TWO ROWS. ALL THE GUARD WERE COMING UP THE HILL LIKE THIS. THE RIGHT, REAR ECHELON WHEN THEY GOT TO ABOUT HERE, ROUGHLY 8 TO 10 SOLDIERS, WHEN THEY GOT TO ABOUT HERE, THEY CAME, THEY TURNED, THEY STEPPED FORWARD AND FIRED.

TWELVE OF THE THIRTEEN CASUALTIES WERE ON THE HILL OR IN THE PARKING LOT. NOW INTERESTING ENOUGH THE CLOSEST STUDENTS TO THE NATIONAL GUARD WERE RIGHT HERE ALONG THIS FENCE.

THE CLOSEST WOUNDED STUDENT WAS JOSEPH LEWIS AND HE WAS STANDING RIGHT HERE. AND HE GAVE AN OBSCENE GESTURE. AND HE WAS SHOT TWICE BY TWO DIFFERENT GUARDSMEN.

THE NEXT CLOSEST WOUNDED STUDENT WAS JOHN CLEARY. HE WAS RIGHT HERE AND YOU MAY HAVE SEEN HIM ON THE FRONT OF LIFE MAGAZINE BEING FIRST AIDED.

NOW IF YOU HAVE ANY DOUBT WHAT A BULLET DOES TO FLESH, (TAP, TAP) THIS IS WHAT IS DOES TO STEEL. SO IRONICALLY THE NATIONAL GUARD CREATED IT'S OWN MEMORIAL. AND THE LOCAL ARTIST, DONALD DRUMM HAS REFUSED TO FIX THE HOLE IN THIS STATUE.

THIS IS THE JEFFREY MILLER SPOT AND THIS IS MARY VECCHIO IN THIS POSITION. THIS IS THE FAMOUS PICTURE WHICH EVENTUALLY WON A PULITZER PRIZE. JOHN FILO WAS STANDING OVER THERE WHERE THOSE STUDENTS ARE STANDING. JOHN FILO WAS A JUNIOR PHOTOGRAPHY MAJOR AT KENT STATE. THIS WAS ON THE NEWS MAGAZINES AND THINGS LIKE THAT AND HAS BECOME REALLY A SYMBOL OF THE VIETNAM ERA. IN FACT-- LIFE MAGAZINE SAID, "THAT WAS ONE OF THE TOP PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CENTURY."

I ALWAYS THOUGHT THE TITLE OF THE SONG WAS FOUR DEAD IN OHIO. BUT IN FACT I SAW THE ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT AT THE ROCK'N ROLL MUSEUM IN CLEVELAND. AND IT IS CALLED OHIO. TIN SOLDIERS AND NIXON COMING, WE'RE FINALLY ON OUR OWN. THIS SUMMER I HEAR THE DRUMMING, FOUR DEAD IN OHIO. I THINK IT WAS NEIL YOUNG WHO WROTE IT AND HE WROTE IT IN A HALF HOUR. IT'S VERY SHORT BUT VERY POWERFUL I ALWAYS THOUGHT IT WAS PLAYED JUST-- YOU KNOW AROUND THIS TIME BUT IT'S, IT'S PLAYED ON ROCK STATIONS ALL THROUGH THE YEAR. WHAT IF YOU KNEW HER AND FOUND HER DEAD ON THE GROUND HOW CAN YOU RUN WHEN YOU KNOW?

THESE STONES WERE PUT HERE BY A JEWISH ORGANIZATION BECAUSE THREE OF THE FOUR SLAIN STUDENTS WERE JEWISH AND SO IT'S A TRADITION TO LEAVE A STONE WHEN YOU MOURN AND THAT'S WHAT THESE STONES ARE PROVIDED FOR. SO STUDENTS AND OTHER STAFF AND FACULTY WHO COME TO THE VIGIL TONIGHT WILL PICK UP A STONE AND PUT IT ON TOP OF THE BOLLARDS.

(JEWISH PRAYER SONG)

(BELL DINGS) JEFFREY MILLER AND THE DATE, MAY 4, 1970.

THIS IS ALLISON KRAUSE'S SPOT, SHE'S ALMOST 110 YARDS AWAY FROM WHERE THE GUARD FIRED THE PAGODA. AND SHE WAS SHOT 3 TIMES IN THE BACK SO...

SHE WAS JUST HERE WE UNDERSTAND TO GET AWAY FROM THE TEAR GAS. SHE HAD BEEN FAIRLY ACTIVE IN THE DEMONSTRATION, IN FACT SHE HAD BEEN STANDING RIGHT NEXT TO JEFFREY MILLER.

THIS IS WILLIAM SCHROEDER'S SPOT. HE WAS AN ROTC STUDENT AND HE WAS JUST AND OBSERVER FOR THE DEMONSTRATION.

WHAT THIS REPRESENTS IS A PERMANENT VIGIL FOR THE FOUR STUDENTS WHO WERE KILLED. THESE SIX

(SIGH) - THESE SIX BOLLARDS GUARD BILL.

SORRY.

WHEN JANE FONDA CAME OUT HERE I SHOWED HER THESE AREAS, COURSE THE MARKERS WEREN'T HERE AND I SAID, SHE STARTED CRYING AND SAID " THESE CHILDREN, THIS SHOULDN'T HAVE HAPPENED." AND IT SHOULDN'T HAVE HAPPENED. YOU SEE THE DISTANCE, YOU'D THINK YOU WERE SAFE.

THIS IS SANDY SCHEUER'S SPOT AND IF THERE'S A TRAGEDY WITHIN A TRAGEDY IT'S SANDY SCHEUER BECAUSE SHE WAS ON HER WAY TO CLASS AND WAS ONLY HERE TO AVOID THE TEAR GAS. SHE WAS NOT PART OF THE DEMONSTRATIONS AT ALL. FURTHER HER PARENT'S WEDDING ANNIVERSARY IS MAY 4TH. SO THE LAST THING THEY GOT FROM SANDY WAS AN ANNIVERSARY CARD.

THIS IS WHERE I WAS STANDING. AND I WATCHED THE GUARD GO UP TO THE PAGODA. AND WHEN THEY GOT TO THE PAGODA THEY TURNED TOGETHER AND FIRED.

HAVING BEEN IN THE ARMY I KNEW THEY WERE REAL BULLETS CAUSE I SAW THE SMOKE. SO I DOVE FOR COVER BEHIND THAT TREE OVER THERE. I WAS ON THE GROUND FAST ENOUGH THAT THE FIRING WENT ON. AND THEN I CAME UP AND MOVED UP CLOSER TO THE PARKING LOT AND A STUDENT CAME UP TO ME AND SAID " DR. LEWIS, THOSE WERE BLANKS WEREN'T THEY?" AND I REALIZED WHAT THE STUDENTS WERE THINKING, THAT BLANKS WERE BEING FIRED. SO I BEGAN TO RUN AROUND HERE SAYING " I'M DR. LEWIS THOSE ARE REAL BULLETS, YOU MUST LEAVE.

KENT STATE WAS CLOSED AND WE WERE CLOSED FOR SIX WEEKS. AND THEN SHORTLY AFTER WE CLOSED IT BECAME THE FIRST NATIONAL STUDENT STRIKE IN AMERICAN HISTORY. IT'S-- WHERE OVER 800 UNIVERSITIES WERE ON SOME SORT OF STRIKE SITUATION. IT WAS UNFATHOMABLE THAT THEY FIRED. THERE WAS NO REASON TO FIRE BUT I UNDERSTAND IT. THEY WERE VERY POORLY TRAINED. THEY WERE VERY POORLY LED. THEY DIDN'T KNOW WHO THE OFFICERS WERE. THEY DIDN'T KNOW WHO THEIR NON-COME WERE. IN SOME CASES THEY DIDN'T EVEN KNOW WHO THEIR FELLOW SOLDIERS WERE. THEY WERE POORLY EQUIPPED. THE GAS MASKS IN MANY CASES DIDN'T FIT PROPERLY. SO WE SHOULDN'T PAINT THE GUARDSMEN WITH THIS BROAD BRUSH THAT THEY'RE ALL KILLERS. THEY'RE NOT. MANY OF THEM ACTED VERY RESPONSIBLY.

THE FOUR DISCS REPRESENT THE FOUR SLAIN STUDENTS. AND THE ONE DISC OVER HERE REPRESENTS THE NINE WOUNDED STUDENTS. THEN, THEY'RE STARTING TO COME UP NOW, THEY'LL BE 56,000 DAFFODILS THAT WILL COME UP AND THEY REPRESENT THE CASUALTIES IN VIETNAM.

AS WITH ANY TRAGEDY YOU HAVE A WHOLE RANGE OF RESPONSES BUT I WOULD SAY THE MEDIAN RESPONSE IF YOU WOULD WAS, "HOW COULD THIS HAPPEN ON A COLLEGE CAMPUS?" IT JUST WASN'T SUPPOSED TO HAPPEN ON A COLLEGE CAMPUS. I REMEMBER SEEING THE VIRGINIA TECH MOURNING GOING ON AND THE CANDLELIGHT VIGIL AND SAYING TO MY WIFE, "I WISH WE COULD'VE DONE THAT HERE ON THE COMMONS." BUT WE DIDN'T HAVE THIS OPPORTUNITY. AND INDEED SOME PEOPLE BE-- DIDN'T REALLY GRIEVE UNTIL THE NEXT MAY 4TH WITH OUR - WHAT BECAME OUR ANNUAL VIGIL AND WALK.

ON BEHALF OF THE MAY 4TH TASK FORCE WE WILL BE RINGING THE VICTORY BELL 32 TIMES. WE DO THIS IN SOLIDARITY FOR ANOTHER GRIEVING CAMPUS.

I THINK TODAY'S STUDENT IS LESS SOCIALLY CONCERNED-- THAN THE CHILD OF THE-- SIXTIES. I WOULD LIKE TODAY'S STUDENTS AND-- AND GENERATIONS OF STUDENTS IN THE FUTURE TO DO WHAT THE MEMORIAL SAYS, "INQUIRE, LEARN AND REFLECT."

THIRTY-SEVEN YEARS AFTER KENT STATE, AND IN THE MIDST OF ANOTHER WAR THAT IS UNPOPULAR WAR WITH A SIGNIFICANT SEGMENT OF THE AMERICAN PUBLIC, WHY DO WE NO LONGER SEE THE KINDS OF LARGE-SCALE CAMPUS PROTESTS THAT, DURING THE VIETNAM WAR, WERE SUCH A DEFINING PART OF THE AMERICAN HOME FRONT? SURELY THE ABSENCE OF THE DRAFT PLAYS A ROLE. COLLEGE STUDENTS IN THE ' 60S WERE OFTEN JUST A FAILING GRADE OR A DIPLOMA AWAY FROM LOSING THEIR STUDENT DEFERMENTS; WHICH MEANT THE WAR WAS MORE PERSONAL, DIRECTLY EFFECTED MORE PEOPLE AND MUCH CLOSER. SOME SAY TODAY'S STUDENTS ARE APATHETIC, LESS INVOLVED IN CURRENT AFFAIRS EVEN ABOUT SOMETHING AS MOMENTOUS AS THE WAR THAN WERE PREVIOUS GENERATIONS. WHILE OTHERS POINT OUT THAT STUDENTS, LIKE ALL CITIZENS, NOW HAVE OTHER WAYS OF ORGANIZING AROUND A CAUSE AND MAKING THEIR VOICES HEARD THEY HAVE THE INTERNET, AND THEY HAVE BECOME MORE SAVVY ABOUT HOW TO APPLY POLITICAL PRESSURE DIRECTLY. OR MAYBE IT HAS SOMETHING TO DO WITH WHAT HAPPENED THE PERIOD BEFORE THE WAR, WHEN HUGE CROWDS, YOUNG AND OLD, MARCHED AGAINST THE GATHERING INVASION, IN AMERICAN CITIES AND AROUND THE WORLD, WHILE RECEIVING SCANT IF ANY MEDIA COVERAGE. WHATEVER THE REASON, THE RELATIVE QUIET ON KENT STATE AND OTHER CAMPUSES REFLECTS THE PREVAILING DISCONNECT BETWEEN THE FIGHTING RAGING IN IRAQ AND AN AMERICA WHERE, ON ANY GIVEN DAY, YOU MIGHT BE HARD PRESSED TO KNOW THAT ANYTHING OUT OF THE ORDINARY WAS GOING ON. FOR HDNET, DAN RATHER REPORTING. GOOD NIGHT.